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Abstract Topic: Basic Science/Life Science

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Analysis of Leaves Trichomes of Eclipta prostrata, Eleutheranthera rederalis, Synedrella nodiflora, and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae, Heliantheae)
Syalwa Shafira and Andi Salamah

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Corresponding Author
Syalwa Shafira

Institutions
Department of Biology, Mathematics and Natural Science Faculty, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia

salamah[at]sci.ui.ac.id

Abstract
Asteraceae is a family of flowering plants distributed widely in the terrestrial regions. Asteraceae are grouped into several tribes. Species of the Heliantheae tribe including Eclipta prostrata, Eleutheranthera rederalis, Synedrella nodiflora, and Tridax procumbens are the most commonly found at Universitas Indonesia Campus, Depok. The research was conducted to describe the morphology and the density of leaves trichomes as a species identification character and for classification purpose that has taxonomic value within several species of tribe Heliantheae. The digital images of leaves were captured using a Dino-Lite digital microscope device and Dino capture 2.0 application to measure the area of leaves and the number of trichomes. The number of trichomes was calculated using ImageJ software. The light microscope was used to observe the trichome morphology. The results showed that trichomes density in young leaves was higher than in the old leaves. Eclipta prostrata, Eleutheranthera rederalis, and Synedrella nodiflora showed micromorphology of trichome with ornamentation on the surface of the trichome, while Tridax procumbens not. The number of leaves trichomes per unit area were also different between species of Heliantheae tribe. Eclipta prostrata has the lowest number of trichomes density with a range of trichomes from 1.15/mm2 to 6.375/mm2 on the surface of young leaves and old leaves. Synedrella nodiflora has the highest trichomes density with a range of trichomes from 2.68/mm2 to 15.71/mm2. The four members of the Heliantheae tribe have a higher density of leaves trichomes on the lower surface (abaxial) than the upper surface (adaxial) of the leaves.

Keywords
Asteraceae; Heliantheae; Taxonomic; Trichomes density; Trichomes morphology

Topic
Basic Science/Life Science

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/NXyFTaYZ69xp


Characteristics of estrus and pregnancy rate following estrus induction by laserpuncture treatment and PGF2α injection in Etawah Crossbred Does
Suyadi Suyadi, Gita Dwi Widyastuti and Tri Eko Susilorini

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Corresponding Author
Suyadi Suyadi

Institutions
Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran, Malang, Indonesia 65145
E-mail : suyadi[at]ub.ac.id

Abstract
Induction of low voltage laser beam on the reproductive accupoints in un-estrus post-partum symptom animal is believed could improve reproductive activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the estrus characteristics and pregnancy rate of Etawah Crossbred does following estrus induction by laserpuncture exposure at the reproductive accupoints or PGF2α injection treatments. Thirty mature Etawah Crossbred does were exposed by laser beam on 17 reproductive accupoints for three consecutive days, once a day (Group1). The other 10 does was injected by PGF2α (Group 2), while the remain 10 does were treated with combination of laserpuncture and PGF2α injection (Group 3). The number of does showing estrus was higher (P<0.05) when injected with PGF2α compared to without any PGF2α injection (50%, 80% and 100%, for Group 1, 2 and 3, respectively). The shorter onset of estrus period from the treatment was in Group 1 (70,0 ± 4,2 h) compared to other groups (Group 2: 133,6 ± 114,6 h and Group 2: 148,6 ± 58,3). The duration of estrus was not different among groups (35,3 ± 6,5 h, 40,6 ± 5,5 h and 36,6 ± 7,3 h, for the respective groups), while the pregnancy rate (P<0.05) were 50%, 70% and 80%, for Group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In conclusion, exposure of laser puncture on the reproductive accupoints of does was possible to induce estrus in unestrus post-partum symptom and the combination laser-exposure and PGF2α injection increased the number of animal showing estrus and pregnancy rate.

Keywords
laserpuncture; accupoint; unestrus post-partum; estrus; pregnancy rate rate.

Topic
Basic Science/Life Science

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/FQa42gDh7xJp


Chromosome Analysis of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Using CHIAS IV Software
Maria Celinna, Putri Aria Miranda, Isnaenisa Rachma, and Andi Salamah

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Corresponding Author
Maria Celinna

Institutions
Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia

salamah[at]sci.ui.ac.id

Abstract
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a plant that has flowers with many variations in size, petal shape, petal colors, and chromosome number. Chromosome number and morphology information is the key to study its flower morphology and physiology. Chromosome Image Analyzing System IV (CHIAS IV) is software that used for mapping and identifying chromosome automatically. This report presents the results of chromosomes analysis using CHIAS IV from four H. rosa-sinensis flower variations (single small red, single small pale red, single big red, and double red). Chromosome number and condensation patterns of individual chromosomes analysis suggested that these flower variations of H. rosa-sinensis exhibited polyploidy, with the smallest number found in single small pale red and the biggest number in single big red flower. CHIAS IV software is an effective tool to analyze chromosome images, especially to predict chromosome number, chromosome type, relative length, and condensation patterns of individual chromosome.

Keywords
CHIAS IV; chromosome number; flower variations; Hibiscus rosa-sinensis; polyploidy

Topic
Basic Science/Life Science

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/pGu6vg7qMeYm


Effects of ZnO Content on Avocado Seed Based Bioplastics
Muhammad Ghufron (a)*, Amalia Adhani (b), Lailatin Nuriyah (a)

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Ghufron

Institutions
(a) Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Brawijaya
Jalan Veteran, 65145,Malang, Indonesia.
*mghufron[at]ub.ac.id
(b) Graduate Student of Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Brawijaya.
Jalan Veteran, 65145, Malang, Indonesia.

Abstract
Indonesia was ranked as the 2nd country in the world in 2015 with the most plastic waste disposal from the land to the ocean. The government has made many efforts to reduce the amount of plastic on the market and try to divert the use of food packaging from non-plastic materials. One effort that can be done is the use of bioplastics where this material is easily degraded by nature. This experiment uses avocado seeds as based material of bioplastic, sorbitol, and glycerol are mixed with the melt intercalation method and ZnO powder is added 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6% to strengthen the mechanical properties of bioplastics. Tensile test results show that the addition of ZnO 1% to 3% can increase the tensile strength of bioplastics while the addition of 4-6% reduces the tensile strength up to 39%. Storage at room temperature for up to 3 weeks shows increased tensile strength values but shows signs of damage to the 4th week. Water absorption data obtained that the highest water absorption is in bioplastic samples without ZnO content with value 86% and the smallest water absorption is at 6% ZnO content of 40%.

Keywords
Bioplastic; Avocado seed; ZnO, Tensile Strength; Degradation

Topic
Basic Science/Life Science

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/nzRLZvBKwC9d


Enhancing Rabbit Farming through Feed Management and Breed Selection Dissemination
Sri Minarti1), Imam Thohari1),and Dina N Priminingtyas2)

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Corresponding Author
Sri Minarti

Institutions
1) Faculty of Animal Science, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia
2) Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Abstract
Rabbit considered as an ideal meat-producing animal, has a short life cycle, short gestation period and prolific.The capacity of feed conversion is high. Due to digestive physiology, can convert about 20% of feed protein into edible meat. Furthermore, this meat considered very healthy, have a rich of protein, low in fat, and cholesterol. However, the consumption of this meat found very low due to small production by the farmer. There is a farmer group focused on the production of rabbit meat in Malang, namely “KelompokKelinci Malang (KKM)”.However, the production rate was still low due to inability to manage feed efficiency. Therefore in this community engagement program, easy and feasible feed management was introduced by this group. The training program was conducted an on-site demonstration. Prior to the training, focus group discussion was held to investigate the actual problem and expectation was fully discussed. The results indicated that the practice had given a new sight of all the target participant,especially in feed management and breed selection of the rabbit farming. Feed management affected the body and sex maturity so that maximum reproduction can be achieved. Performance of the breed can be measured using letter size, mothering ability, and low mortality. Effective feed management may increase the meat production. Finally, the feed management and breed selection are very important to find out the best performance.

Keywords
breed; farming; feed; meat; rabbit;

Topic
Basic Science/Life Science

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/r7twbWV9RfN4


Improvement of Soundscapes based on Noise Control in Urban Forest as an Effort to Fulfill Quality of Green Open Space Standards
Lailatul Inayah(a*),Suyatno(b),Susilo Indrawati(c)

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Corresponding Author
Lailatul Inayah

Institutions
Department of Physics
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nompember

Abstract
Urban forests have aesthetic functions and social functions that refer to the quality standards. In the urban landscape, space is inseparable from the problem of traffic noise and other activities. The sounds are composed in unity, and form interactions in the acoustic environment of urban forests. A sound composition that interacts with a particular landscape is called a soundscape. The term soundscape can also be interpreted as an acoustic environment that is understood and felt by individuals. Urban noise can cause city forest soundscapes to be less comfortable and less aesthetic, so their function as green open spaces is not fulfilled. This study aims to make improvements to the soundscape based on the quality of green open space standards through noise control and find out the improvement formula that is most preferred by the subjects. The standard quality of green open space can be pursued through sound masking, active noise cancellation and convolution in sound signal conditioning. The improvement results were tested on 30 respondents by comparison tests and then identified with subjective environmental acoustic parameters, namely autocorrelation function (τ1, Φ1) and dynamic range (DR). Efforts to improve quality based on the quality of green open space the most preferred by respondents are sound masking and ANC with birds singing with scores of 4.44 and 2.78, respectively. Based on the results of identification of traffic noise treated by ANC and sound masking with birds chirping obtained DR values = 32.35 dBA, τ1 = 0.73 s, and Φ1 = 0.03.

Keywords
green open space;noise control;soundscape.

Topic
Basic Science/Life Science

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/8bdBD2ZKqHwM


INNOVATION OF SPERMATOZOA SEXING TECHNOLOGY IN BULL TO PRODUCE CALF SEX AS EXPECTED
Trinil Susilawati1, Aulia Puspita Anugra Yekti1, Kuswati1, Syahrul Kurniawan2, Asri Nurul Huda1 , Awang Tri Satria1

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Corresponding Author
trinil susilawati

Institutions
1Animal Science Faculty , Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia
2 Agriculture Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Abstract
Abstract. Cattle breeding business need specific calf sex especially for fattening program needs of a male calf, while for dairy cows and breeding program are required for female calves. Therefore sexing technology is needed to get the calf sex as expected. The materials used were bull of Limousin semen with motility more than 70%. The sexing technology used was Percoll Gradient Centrifugation. This technology produces 83% of Y sperm in the upper layer, while 83% of sperm X in the lower layer so that each layer can be produced for sexing frozen semen. The sexed semen has been produced by Artificial Insemination Centre of Singosari Malang and has been marketed widely. The results showed that implementation of Artificial Insemination using frozen semen sexing (Sperm Y) could result in a male calf in the district of Tuban for 60 heads produced 61.5% pregnancy success in a single dose, whereas in double dose 63.6%. The male calf sex ratio of 42.11% in a single dose and 78.95% in double dose.

Keywords
Sexing sperm; bull semen; Artificial Insemination; sex ratio; pregnancy rate

Topic
Basic Science/Life Science

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/EAmztB3TxcWf


Introduction of technologies of composting and natural dyes for ikat weaving in the community of Ensaid Panjang, Sintang, West Kalimantan
Amin Setyo Leksono, Irfan Mustafa, Aminudin Afandhi

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Corresponding Author
Amin Setyo Leksono

Institutions
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia
2Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to describe the level of knowledge and strategies for the introduction of technology for making compost and natural dyes of ikat woven cloth of the Dayak community in Ensaid Panjang village, Sintang, West Kalimantan. This community service activity adopted action research with a project-based learning approach. Action research activities start from the initial survey of community needs. Furthermore, the activity implementation team compiles preparations in the form of debriefing to students of real work lectures, preparation of materials and equipment needed for practice. A total of 52 respondents were determined by snowball sampling technique. Key informants in this study consisted of the Head of Ensaid Panjang Hamlet, the Betang traditional house elders, and the Ensaid Panjang community representatives. Furthermore, the introduction of technologies for making compost and natural dyes of ikat woven cloth was done by lecturing, simulation, demo, and direct practice methods. The results showed that three indicators showed a significant increase in understanding. These consisted of skilled at the process of making natural dyes from local plant species that can be used as dyes for woven cloth; the the process of making compost from household waste, litter and livestock waste; and institutional roles that help the process of making and marketing woven cloth. A significant increase in understanding indicates that the action community empowerment activities have been successfully implemented. In general, the average increase in understanding and achievement of the community by 11%. Particularly, the understanding of composting has improved by 51%.

Keywords
composting, natural dyes, Dayak, ikat woven cloth

Topic
Basic Science/Life Science

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/KFLpBMj6nDu7


Leaf Morphology Variation of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. influence by Difference Light Intensity in Universitas Indonesia Campus Area and Citayam, Depok
Aldi Yazri Siregar (a) and Andi Salamah (a*)

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Corresponding Author
Aldi Yazri Siregar

Institutions
Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Universitas
Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
salamah[at]sci.ui.ac.id

Abstract
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. is a plant that has been cultivated as an ornamental plant, especially in Indonesia. Universitas Indonesia, located in Depok, has 10 variations of H. rosa-sinensis in size, shape, and color of flowers. The flower shape consists of 3 types, namely, single, double, and crested. In this study, We reported the comparison of leaf morphology from several types of H. rosa-sinensis L. Twenty leaves from each variety were used for morphometric measurement, and light intensity data from each location of the plant variety was also collected. There are two locations, Universitas Indonesia (UI) Campus Area and Citayam. The results showed that two crested peach in Citayam exposure by different light intensity has significantly different in leaf surface area but no difference in stomata surface area. Big Single Red and Double Pink located in UI exposure by the same light intensity has the same leaf surface area and stomata surface area. Comparing Small Single Red Citayam and Small Single Red UI exposure by different light intensity has significantly different in leaf surface area and stomata surface area. Two Crested Peach in UI exposure by the same light intensity has significantly different in leaf surface area and has the same stomata surface area. In this case showed that light intensity can influence the variation of leaf morphology of several Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower types, but not all flower types.

Keywords
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.; leaf morphology; morphometry; light intensity

Topic
Basic Science/Life Science

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/uyphETadgn9A


Micromorphology Comparison on the Inflorescences Development of Six Species Asteraceae
Dwi Annisa Putri (a), Aleta Delviani (a), and Andi Salamah (a*)

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Corresponding Author
Dwi Annisa Putri

Institutions
a) Departement of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
*salamah[at]sci.ui.ac.id

Abstract
Asteraceae, also known as the Sunflower Family, is one of the largest and successful flowering plant species beside Orchids and Legume families. This family is often considered taxonomically difficult, mainly because of its vast numbers and cosmopolitan distribution. This family also displays floral diversity in tribes, hence the study was conducted to compare the stages of Asteraceae inflorescences (capitulum) and fruit structures of six species (Blumea lacera, Cyanthillium cinereum, Mikania micrantha, Emilia sonchifolia, Bidens pilosa, and Porophyllum ruderale) that belong to Inuleae, Vernonieae, Eupatoriae, Senecioneae, Coreopsideae, and Tageteae respectively. The inflorescences and fruit were observed using Dinolite devices and Dinocapture 2.0 applications. The results indicate that there are variations in the flower development stage, with a range of stages, 10-19. The flowering stage divided into four, namely pre-anthesis (the inflorescence is still in the bud form and green); beginning of anthesis (the buds start to open, and the corolla begins to appear); anthesis (marked with a fully open corolla); and senescence (characterized by a change in the corolla into brown and dry out). The six species observed have achene (cypsela) fruit with a size range of 3.8 -18.3 mm with distribution accessories. All the five species studied have fruit accessories in the form of pappus, except for Bidens pilosa. The fruit pappus in five species have different sizes in the range of 2.8 – 10.3 mm - the most extended fruit pappus belong to Porophyllum ruderale.

Keywords
Asteraceae; flowering stage; fruit accessories; inflorescences; and pappus

Topic
Basic Science/Life Science

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/p7YJRFmg36Ka


Morphological Observation on the Inflorescence Development of Tridax procumbens, Eclipta prostrata, Eleutheranthera ruderalis, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, Heliantheae)
Aleta Delviani (a), Dwi Annisa Putri (a) and Andi Salamah (a*)

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Corresponding Author
Aleta Delviani

Institutions
a) Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
*salamah[at]sci.ui.ac.id

Abstract
Asteraceae is one of the cosmopolitan flowering plants spread in various regions, including Indonesia. Tridax procumbens, Eclipta prostrata, Eleutheranthera ruderalis, and Synedrella nodiflora are commonly found at Universitas Indonesia Campus, Depok. The research was conducted to describe the development stages of flowers and fruit forms from the four species of the Heliantheae tribe. Samples were taken by purposive sampling technique at several locations at Universitas Indonesia Campus, Depok. All stages of flower buds start from the smallest (± 2 mm) until the dry up fruit stages are collected and observed using the Dinolite device and the Dino capture 2.0 application. The results showed that there were variations in the number of stages of inflorescence-fruit development in the four species observed, with a range 8-16 stages and the largest size in the range of 4-9 mm. The flowering stage divided into four groups, namely pre-anthesis, beginning of anthesis, anthesis, and senescence. In the pre-anthesis stage, the inflorescence is still in the bud form and green; at the beginning of anthesis, the buds begin to open, and the corolla begins to appear; the anthesis stage is marked with a fully open corolla; while the senescence stage is characterized by a change in the corolla into brown and dry out. The four species observed have achene (cypsela) fruit with sizes ranging from 3-4 mm. The fruits can be divided into two groups, with and without a distribution accessory. Seed distribution accessories are winged peripheral, lanceolate shaped central, capillary bristle, and reduced pappus.

Keywords
Anthesis; cypsela; developing stage; heliantheae; inflorescence

Topic
Basic Science/Life Science

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/cBPVGfvKwpZW


Plant Growth Response of Physalis angulata on Dosage of NPK fertilizer
Wiwin Sumiya Dwi Yamika*, Budi Waluyo and Nurul Aini

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Corresponding Author
Wiwin Sumiya Dwi Yamika

Institutions
Departement Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya

Abstract
Physalis angulata (Wild Gooseberry) has vitamins and phytochemicals that are good for health. We have several lines of wild gooseberry that have the potential to be widely cultivation. But so far there has not been an optimal fertilizing dose for these lines of hope. The aim of this study was to determine the response of wild gooseberry at different NPK fertilizer doses. The study was conducted in a pot using a factorial randomized block design with factor 1 was types of lines: lines 1, lines 2 and lines 3 and factor 2 was the doses of NPK fertilizer: NPK: 75 kg NPK ha-1, 150 kg NPK ha-1 dan 225 NPK kg NPK ha-1. The doses of Fertilizer gives a different growth response in each wild gooseberry lines which the growth of lines 2 and 3 increase with the increasing doses of fertilizer.

Keywords
Physalis angulata ; Gooseberry; fertilizer, growth

Topic
Basic Science/Life Science

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/aMUgt7A2QDJT


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