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Abstract Topic: Energy and agricultural machinery

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Analysis of heating system on fluidized bed dryer for corn
Sukmawaty (a*), Hardiansyah (a), A Priyati (a), DA Setiawati (a), Syahrul (b)

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Corresponding Author
Guyup Mahardhian Dwi Putra

Institutions
a) Study Program of Agriculture Engineering, Mataram University, Jl. Majapahit No.62, Mataram 83125, Indonesia
*sukmawaty14[at]yahoo.com
b) Mechanical Engineering Department, Mataram University, Jl. Majapahit No.62, Mataram 83125, Indonesia

Abstract
This study aims to determine the heat produced from the heating system of the fluidized bed dryer on corn drying process and to calculate the thermal efficiency of the heating system. The method used was experimental with three variables of biomass of 3.5 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg. The corn initial moisture content of around 22% is used and the heating equipment used are a biomass furnace and heater. The parameters in this study are temperature, material moisture content, and thermal efficiency of heating system and biomass furnace. The biggest thermal efficiency of heating system at air velocity 12.19 m/s and material mass of 3.5 kg at 14.93%. The value of thermal efficiency of the largest biomass furnace system at air velocity 12.19 m/s and 3.5 kg material mass of 74.68%.

Keywords
drying efficiency, fluidized bed, heat exchanger

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/Zz7bkRDQEKxU


Current Result on Technical Adaptability Study of Korean-Made Agricultural Machinery in Indonesia
Bambang Purwantana1*, Lilik Sutiarso1, Radi1, Andri Prima Nugroho1, Sri Markumningsih1, Rudiati Evi Masithoh1, Jin Ha Yun2, Kyeong Uk Kim2, In Chul Yeo3, and Dong Gun Lee3

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Corresponding Author
sri markumningsih

Institutions
1 Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada,
Jln. Flora No.1 Bulakrumur, Yogyakarta 55281, INDONESIA
2 AGM Systems & Engineering, Suwon, SOUTH KOREA
3 Daedong Industry Co., Ltd., Seoul, SOUTH KOREA

Corresponding Author E-mail: bambang_pw[at]ugm.ac.id

Abstract
The objective of this study was to test Korea-made tractors and combines in Indonesia to increase their local adaptability to Southeast Asian countries. The tractors are Kioti DK4510 (43HP) for paddy field and Kioti RX7620 (72HP) for sugarcane plantation. The combine harvester is Kioti DSF75GT (72HP). The tractors were tested to work into three types of soils (heavy, medium, and light) that represent the characteristics of paddy field and sugarcane plantation. The heavy soil was grumusol and latosol, the medium was Regosol, and the light was Latosol. The implements used for the performance test was local-made implement with some adjustment. The implements for paddy field were disc plow and rotary tiller, and for sugarcane plantation were disc plow and disc harrow. The tractors performance has been evaluated by the observation of the cooling performance, actual working speed, fuel consumption, and field capacity. Three repetitions of each variation were conducted. The combine was tested to harvest local paddy field in the past season. The field capacity, threshing performance, cooling performance, and easiness of the operation were observed to evaluate the combine performance. As the result for the second year, the plowing field capacity of RX7620 in heavy, medium, and light soil were 0.46 ha/hr, 0.34 ha/hr, and 0.34 ha/hr respectively. The field capacity for harrowing obtained 0.53 ha/hr, 0.47 ha/hr, and 0.58 ha/hr. For the Combine harvester, the field capacity was 0.38 ha/hr. Small modification and adjustment of some components have been performed so as to fit the agro-technical aspect and operational requirement. Performance evaluation of the modified machines and public demonstration will be in our future works.

Keywords
adaptability study; agricultural machinery; tractor testing; local farming field

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/GFJtYPh4jUgw


Design and testing of vertical tubular baffle heat exchanger as an internal reboiler in the distillation device
Yuana Susmiati, Bambang Purwantana, Nursigit Bintoro, Sri Rahayoe

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Corresponding Author
Yuana Susmiati

Institutions
Politeknik Negeri Jember
Universitas Gadjah Mada

Abstract
Reboiler in the distillation device is a heat exchanger to heat or boil liquid material in the distillation column. In this research vertical tubular baffle heat exchanger was designed and used as an internal reboiler in the distillation device. The aim of the study was to observe the temperature distribution during the liquid heating process in the vertical tubular baffle heat exchanger with different dimensions. The study was conducted by designing heat exchangers (HE) with different dimensions in height, diameter, and surface area (number) of tubes. Times and fuels needed to heat the liquid to a temperature of 78 oC were calculated. Based on observations it was found that the different geometry of the vertical tubular baffle heat exchanger gives different performance. Height, diameter, and the number of tubes (surface area) affect the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient, times and fuels needed for heating liquids at a temperature of 78 oC. In the same surface area but different in height and diameter of the heat exchanger, give a different result in overall heat transfer coefficient (U). HE with the number of tubes 3 and 7 obtained a higher value of U with a tube height of 4 cm and a diameter of 4 cm, compared with the value of U in HE with a tube 8 cm in high and 2 cm in diameter, but the opposite occurs in HE with a number of tubes 5.

Keywords
internal reboiler, heat exchanger, vertical tubular baffle, distillation

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/Qyt2dWDCNmKF


Design Of Liquid Fertilizer Applicator Based On Variable Rate Application (VRA) for Soybean
Miraj Fuadi, Lilik Soetiarso, Radi, Sari Virgawati, P H T Nugraheni

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Corresponding Author
MI-RAJ FUADI

Institutions
Faculty of agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia

Abstract
The process of fertilization is one of the phase that is very important in improving the quality and quantity crops. The needs of plants nutrient on one stretch of the fact that not entirely uniform. In addition the use of chemical fertilizer continously with the doses increasing each year can upset the balance lands nutrient therefore it is necessary variable-rate liquid fertilizer applicator to set a dose of fertilizer required by the plant. This study attempts to design and test the performance of variable-rate liquid fertilizer applicator and soil nutrrient test. The applicator can be used to 4 line the soybean plant with distance cropping 40x20 cm. This applicator can control travel speed and dosage of fertilizers that were out of 4 Nozzle. Evaluation and its performance tested in the laboratorium. Discharge that was issued on PWM motor sprayer variations 40 to 100% produce discharge markedly dissimilar variations on each of the PWM sprayer. In application uniformity evaluations use the coefficient of variation (CV). The coefficient of variation of the discharge range 2.71-12.37% and there is a diversity of N, P and K soil contents in each land tested although the changes are not too different.

Keywords
Variable rate, Liquid fertilizer, Precision farming

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/yxDdkhEzpFHq


DESIGN OF PALM SEEDS SORTING MACHINE
Tamrin1) and Budianto Lanya2)

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Corresponding Author
Tamrin Tamrin

Institutions
LAMPUNG UNIVERSITY

Abstract
The need for oil palm seeds in Indonesia has increased lately. Palm seeds can be grown from the kernel. To get a uniform size kernel requires uniform size seeds. This study aims to design, make a separator of palm seeds so that the size of the seeds is uniform. The design phase is done using a CAD program to draw engineering drawings. Based on enggineering drawings, we analyzed and made prototypes of palm seed sorting machines. The size of the prototype is 182 cm long, 50 cm wide and 94 cm high. This machine sorts seeds into large, medium and small dimensions The test results of 300 seeds consisting of 100 large size seeds, 100 medium size seeds and 100 small size seeds, produced 29.5% large size, 30.8% small size 28.2% small size. The capacity of the machine was 72 kg per hour.

Keywords
design, machine, palm seeds, sorting and capacity

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/etKXbdHg2ZD9


Design of powertrain and steering system for six wheels agricultural transporter
Desrial1, RPA Setiawan1, A Sutejo1, IM Edris1, MNA Fauri1, RA Faris1

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Corresponding Author
Desrial Desrial

Institutions
1Department of Agricultural Engineering and Biosystem, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, IPB University, Jl. Raya Dramaga Kampus IPB Dramaga Bogor 16680 West Java, Indonesia.

E-mail: desrial_ipb[at]yahoo.com

Abstract
Transportation activity of agriculture"s production inputs and products from farm to processing house or storage house is generally carried out on poor road condition. Therefore, a special vehicle that can transport the products and able to pass agricultural farm easily is needed. The objective of this research was to design the powertrain and turning system of six wheels agricultural transporter. The design criteria of this vehicle was as follow: load capacity 750 kg and vehicles dimension fits to road class III criteria. The main components of powertrain system and turning mechanism were chassis, engine, gearbox, chain, sprocket, shaft, disc brake and tire wheels. The method of this research followed the common procedure of machine design process and continued to manufacturing and testing. The performance test showed that maximum forward speed without carrying load was 7.8 kmh-1 and with maximum load was 6.6 kmh-1. The smallest 1800 turning radius was 3.5 m at engine speed of 3500 rpm which occurred when vehicle without carrying load.

Keywords
transporter, 6 wheels, powertrain, skid steering

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/8Y6VZbmfcEpA


DEVELOPMENT INTEGRATED MACHINE FOR TILLAGE, CORN PLANTER AND SOLID FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS
Harsono and Uning Budiharti

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Corresponding Author
Uning Budiharti

Institutions
Indonesian Center for Agricultural Engineering Reseach and Development

Abstract
Challenge in the expansion of maize and soybean planting areas is the limited agrcultural labor from land processing activities, planting to post-harvest. Considering that the corn and soybean cultivation systems are still traditionally done using both human and livestock power so that the productivity and work efficiency produced is still low. This affects to the area of land that can be cultivated, land productivity and the production of corn produced. To support the program to expand the planting area and increase the crop index to increase corn production, it is necessary to support the use of appropriate mechanization technology and in accordance with site-specific conditions. Therefore it is necessary to introduce agricultural machinery to support the corn cultivation system to increase productivity, work efficiency, increase yields and improve the quality of results. In this activity the implementation and development of mechanization technology for corn and soybean cultivation is appropriate and in accordance with site-specific conditions at the demonstration plot scale in the corn and soybean production centers by taking into account the technical, economic, and socio-economic conditions of the local community. Indonesian Center for Agricultural Engineering Research and Development has developed a rotary and planting machine that can do soil treatment and planting seeds at once. This machine is equipped with solid fertilizer application. But in practice farmers rarely use liquid fertilizer for corn / soybean cultivation. Test results of tillage and planting of corn seeds: Work depth of 12.1 cm; spacing in rows 38.5 cm; spacing in rows of 70 cm; number of seeds per fall 2.2 items; percentage of empty holes 4.1%; work width is an average of 162.88 cm; average working speed of 2.31 km / h; average work capacity of 4.08 hours / ha; fuel consumption of 20.32 lt / ha

Keywords
Intragated Machine , Tillage, Corn Planter, Fertilizer Application

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/yCUxBwXAGvak


Development of a Decision Support System for Mapping Variable Rate Fertilizing Application on Soybean (Glycine max) Cultivation
Patriasia Hesti Tri Nugraheni, Muhjidin Mawardi, Lilik Sutiarso, Andri Prima Nugroho, Sari Virgawati, Miraj Fuadi

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Corresponding Author
Patriasia Hesti Tri Nugraheni

Institutions
Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281

Abstract
Precision Farming (PF) has been developed in many countries. It is need an appropriate and integrated technology to achieve the goals, such as global positioning system (GPS) to mark the geographical coordinate, ArcGIS to map the spatial data, Variable-rate Application (VRA) to show the variability of soil properties on the field and Decision Support System (DSS) to establish the best management practices for the field operation. The objective of this research was to develop a decision support system for mapping VRA of precision fertilizing on soybean cultivation. The system generates a VRA map and shows the amount of required fertilizer for soybean according to the field and soil properties data. The DSS was developed using web application to facilitate the flexibility, and scalable access via internet. To execute the application, user requires to select the coordinates of the field and soil sample points and fertilizer dose data. The friendly user of DSS program was successfully produced with the VRA map showed the data of recommendation fertilizer as the decision support system. The outcome from this study was the application mapping VRA. Further steps are needed in order to apply this application to the farmers.

Keywords
Decision Support System; Variable-rate Application (VRA); Soil Nutrient Map; Variable-rate Application Map

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/HQKNJ2GAuVZR


Development of Environmental Monitoring Systems based on LoRa with Cloud Integration for Rural Area
M S Hidayat, A P Nugroho , L Sutiarso a and T Okayasu

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Corresponding Author
Mohamad Soleh Hidayat

Institutions
Universitas Gadjah Mada

Abstract
Increasing the quality and quantities of agricultural products can be optimized with an environmental monitoring system, to determine the plants condition and as a reference in caring for plants. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is widely used in field monitoring recently, because of its ease of use and being able to monitor in real-time. Indonesia is an agricultural country with more than 16,5 million of farming land, most of the farming land are located in the rural area. The problems that occurs when implementing IoT to environmental monitoring in rural area is the limited signal and energy. In this study, we study and research the use of LoRa as a Long Range Low Power data transmitter for environmental monitoring in agricultural systems in the rural areas. The location of this research was conducted in Bulaksumur Universitas Gadjah Mada. This research was focused on system design and performance test. There are four zones with variuous obstacles. The Zone D (LOS) is the best scenario to optimizing data transmission. This Zone can reach over 800 m distance with only 20% packet loss.

Keywords
LoRa, Environmental Monitoring System, Rural Area

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/TGLJYn2PAyv6


Development of GPS-based Tracking System to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Tillage using Four-wheel Tractor
Andri Prima Nugroho (a*), Shadiq Muhammad Shalih (a,) Bambang Purwantana (a), Lilik Sutiarso (a), Radi (a), Sri Markumningsih (a), Rudiati Evi Masithoh (a), Jin Ha Yun (b), Kyeong Uk Kim (b), In Chul Yeo (c), and Dong Gun Lee (c)

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Corresponding Author
Andri Prima Nugroho

Institutions
a) Dept. of Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora 1 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
*andrew[at]ugm.ac.id
b) AGM Systems & Engineering, Suwon, South Korea
c) Daedong Industry Co., Ltd., Seoul, South Korea

Abstract
The objective of this study was to present the development of GPS-based tracking system to evaluate the effectiveness of tillage using a four-wheel tractor. The system is composed of a location acquisition, using GPS (iGPSport), and data analysis for estimating the tractor trajectories and effectiveness of tillage by measuring the overlap during the tillage. The laboratory stage experiment was conducted to validate the system by measuring the specified size of the field and tractor trajectories. The performance evaluation of the system was done by measuring the displacement error of actual trajectories and the estimated one. The system was also tested for the actual tillage operation using a four-wheel tractor, Daedong Kioti RX7210, in two locations in Yogyakarta: Pajangan, and Moyudan. The tractor tracking system was developed based on GPS for estimating the tractor trajectory path and operation width distance (l) after the operation as tillage effectiveness evaluation by the evaluation of overlap and un-tillage land systematically using the tracking system. The system performance evaluation in the actual field for tillage operation using the four-wheel tractor in Moyudan and Pajangan shows that the RMSE < 50 cm, and the MAPE < 24% with R2 > 0.7. Overall performance of the tracking system, it could be used to estimate the behavior of tillage operation.

Keywords
precision agriculture; gps-tracking; tracking system; precision tillage; tracking

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/dwf6xqvaRmAL


Development of savonius type windmill prototype as a learning medium about wind power plants
Sri Markumningsih1, Bambang Purwantana1, Junipan C. Gulo1

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Corresponding Author
sri markumningsih

Institutions
1 Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Jln. Flora No.1 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, INDONESIA

Corresponding Author E-mail: sri_markumningsih[at]ugm.ac.id

Abstract
One of the renewable energy sources that can be used as a driving resource is the wind. Wind energy can be converted into energy in other forms, for example mechanical energy or electrical energy through wind turbines. One of the most developed wind turbines is the Savonius type which includes the vertical shaft type. The investment cost for making a real wind turbine in the field is very expensive so it cannot use trial and error methods to get efficient turbines. Research to develop wind turbines is done by making a prototype of a laboratory scale wind turbine. The part of wind turbines are made in a small size so that the mini wind power plant can operate and on the other hand does not cost a lot. From the prototype parameters can be observed that affect the performance of the wind turbine. The windmill prototype was made 200 cm high and 50 cm in diameter and equipped with 4 blades. For testing in the laboratory using a wind source from the fan which is driven by an electric motor that can be adjusted by the rpm. The determination of power efficiency is applied by the turbine ability to absorb the energy of wind as represented by torque and rotational speed of turbine attacked air flow in testing. The result shows that efficiency of the savonius turbine were 5,02% - 9,12%.

Keywords
renewable energy, savonius type windmill prototype, learning medium

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/z7etHEuhJCN8


Effect of Hopper Angle and Teeth Density on Performance of Cylinder Type Sago Rasping Machine
Darma, Budi Santoso2 and Moh. Arif Arbianto

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Corresponding Author
Darma Darma

Institutions
Papua University and BPTP Papua Barat

Abstract
Rasping is the most frequently useful method to disintegrate or to break down the cellular structure of sago pith for mechanical processing. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of hopper angle and teeth density on rasping performance of cylinder type sago rasping machine. In the experiment, three levels of hopper angle i.e. 0 (H1), 22.5 (H2) and 45 (H3) and three levels of teeth density i.e. 2.2 cm x4 cm (D1), 2.2 cm x3 cm (D2), and 2.2 cm x 2 cm (D3) were examined. The rasping performance test was carried out by measuring rasping capacity, starch percentage, and starch yield. The experimental results showed that the combination of hopper angle and teeth density significantly affected rasping capacity and starch yield, but did not affect the starch percentage. The highest rasping capacity (1891 kg/hour) and the highest starch yield (790 kg) were resulted under experimental condition of teeth density 2.2 cmx 3 cm with hopper angle of 22.5 degree. In conclusion, the optimum condition to achieve highest rasping performance was teeth density 2.2 cm x3 cm with hopper angle 22.5.

Keywords
cylinder type, hopper angle, rasping capacity, sago rasping machine, teeth density

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/w4NTzV9y2UkA


Laboratory Performance Analysis of Rice Combine Harvester Daedong DSF75GT
Radi1*, Rachmad Septiawan AP1, Adam Wisnu Aji1, Bambang Purwantana1, Lilik Sutiarso1, Andri Prima Nugroho1, Sri Markumningsih1, Rudiati Evi Masithoh1, Jin Ha Yun2, Kyeong Uk Kim2, In Chul Yeo3, and Dong Gun Lee3

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Corresponding Author
Radi Radi

Institutions
1Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No.1 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
2AGM Systems & Engineering, Suwon, Korea
3Daedong Industry Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea

Abstract
Combine harvester is one of the most needed agricultural machinery by farmers as it is increasingly difficult to find harvest worker. To develop the machine, Department of Agriculture and Biosystem Engineering collaborated with AGM Systems & Engineering to test the DSF75GT type combine harvester machine. The preliminary test shows that the machine performance is not optimal, especially when it is viewed from the grain damage percentage during the harvesting process. Based on the process, the harvesting principle of the machine includes the stages of cutting, feeding, threshing, and moving the grain from the threshing unit to the grain tank, and finally with unloading stage. Process to grain transfer with screw conveyor system is suspected to be the cause of grain damage. For this reason, this study aims to determine the machine parts which potentially contribute to the grain damage. The test was carried out in laboratory with two sample, i.e. harvested grain samples (GKP) and milled dry grain (GKG). The sample was inserted in to the threshing chamber which is then transferred by screw conveyor to the grain tank before being removed. Observation of the grain damage is carried out at 5 points on the screw conveyors. The results showed that there were 3 screws which contribute significantly to grain damage. From the result, the next step focuses on modification of the parts.

Keywords
combine harvester, laboratory performance, grain damage, screw conveyor

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/XWGqr2LwfVMK


Operational Performance of Agricultural Machineries Managed by Custom Hiring (UPJA) in Banyumas District of Central Java Province
Bambang Purwantana, Murtiningrum, Sri Markumningsih, Muhammad Makky, Aswaldi Anwar

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Corresponding Author
Bambang Purwantana

Institutions
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia

Abstract
Operational Performance of Agricultural Machineries Managed by Custom Hiring (UPJA) in Banyumas District of Central Java Province Bambang Purwantana1, Murtiningrum1, Sri Markumningsih1, Muhammad Makky2, Aswaldi Anwar2 1Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia 2Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Andalas, Kampus Unand Limau Manih, Padang 25163, Indonesia E-mail: bambang_pw@ugm.ac.id ; tiningm@ugm.ac.id; sri_markumningsih@ugm.ac.id Abstract. Agricultural mechanization, especially in term of utilization of agricultural machinery, has important role in increasing capacity, efficiency, and effectiveness of agricultural production process. Therefore, in order to mechanize Indonesian agricultural system, Ministry of Agriculture has facilitated farmers with many agricultural machineries. Farmer institutions that were formed and designated to utilize and manage those agricultural machineries is Agricultural Machinery Custom Hiring (UPJA, Usaha Pelayanan Jasa Alat mesin pertanian). In this research, the operational performance of agricultural machineries managed by the custom hiring (UPJA) in Banyumas District of Central Java Province were studied. The research was done by desk study, focus group discussion, field survey to 7 of 49 UPJA, and measuring the operational performance of machineries utilized by those UPJA. The results showed there was still no professional UPJA available in Banyumas. All of UPJA were in beginner status. The common owned and operated agricultural machinery was hand tractor, while four wheel tractor, rice transplanter, power weeder, and rice combine harvester were limited. In general the operational performance of the machines were low. The most factor affected the performance were time required for transportation from garage to the field. In case of hand tractor, the time consumed for transportation was 8-14% of total working hour per day (8 hours). For four wheel tractor, rice transplanter, and rice combine harvester, the time required for transportation were 4-9%, 8-16%, and 9-18% of total working hour respectively. The other factors slightly affected the operational performance were time losses due to machine preparation or setting and machine trouble. It is suggested to facilitate towing truck to transport the machines, or develop garage not far from field area. Empowering UPJA in management and technical skills are also needed. Keywords: Performance; operational; machinery; custom hiring

Keywords
Performance; operational; machinery; custom hiring

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/vD9JbaRk7qyM


Optimization Study of Utility Tractor Design Powered by Electric Battery
Joel Sitompul (a*), Ryozo Noguchi (b), Tofael Ahamed (b)

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Corresponding Author
Joel Sitompul

Institutions
(a) College of Agro-Biological Resource Sciences
School of Life and Environmental Sciences
University of Tsukuba
1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan
*s1518510[at]u.tsukuba.ac.jp
(b) Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences
University of Tsukuba
1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan

Abstract
Powertrain by electric battery has been a growing trend in various industries including automotive, manufacture, and agriculture. Electric battery has been applied on several agricultural robots for multiple purposes such as liquid distribution, autonomous harvest, and sensors. In agricultural utility tractor, powertrain by electric battery has potential to replace powertrain by Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) which commonly use fossil fuel as source of energy. However, application of electric battery power system has not been feasible due to overweight which lead soil compaction, lower speed, and high energy consumption. Overweight values are calculated on 5 utility tractors with different size and output power, in which the results vary from 33.53% to 93.46%. This study aims to optimize the design of utility tractors which will reduce the weight to standard operational weight dependent on tractor size. Alternative components are considered including Li4.4Si battery, Li2Sn battery and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) for component selection, system design, and simulation on MATLAB Simulink Simscape. Throughout the process, effect of overweight on tractor speed and state of charge (SOC) are identified. Further, electric battery power system is expected to be applied on utility tractors, replacing the use of ICE and fossil fuel within conventional tractor.

Keywords
Utility tractor; Electric Battery; Internal Combustion Engine; State of Charge

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/hFAnd6MVPXxZ


Organic Fertilizer Applicator Performance Test On Rice Field
Iqbal, Mahmud Achmad, and Muhammad Tahir Sapsal

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Corresponding Author
Iqbal Iqbal

Institutions
Hasanuddin University

Abstract
Intensive use of paddy fields will cause a decrease in the fertility of the land. On the other hand, the continuous use of chemical fertilizers will result in environmental pollution even though fertilization is one of the important things to increase production. Organic fertilizer applicator technology is able to fertilize quickly and precisely. The use of organic fertilizers as soil conditioner can increase soil organic matter content so as to maintain and increase the fertility of agricultural land. Fertilization using technology in the form of an organic fertilizer applicator is expected to maximize plant growth so that it can increase rice production. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of the application of organic fertilizer on rice fields. This applicator uses a conveyor belt as metering device, so that the power for the operation of the applicator comes from the wheel rotation and chain transmission. The results show that the applicator can function well. The factors that influence the magnitude of efficiency include the speed and proficiency of the operator.

Keywords
rice field; applicator; organic fertilizer; efficiency

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/HVzn6maZ83Cy


Performance Test of a Diesel Engine with Biodiesel from Kemiri Sunan
M. Muhaemin, A.M. Kramadibrata, S. Nurjannah, I. Makarim, T. Herwanto, Handarto

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Corresponding Author
Mimin Muhaemin

Institutions
Universitas Padjadjaran, Kampus Jatinangor, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang km 21, Sumedang 45363, Indonesia.

Abstract
Abstract. With decreasing fossil oil reserve, alternative plant-based fuel become more important. One of the source of such fuel is kemiri sunan (rutealis trisperma). Kemiri sunan has an advantage that it is not competing for food use. Biodiesel from kemiri sunan needs to be tested on diesel engine. The objective of this research was to test the performance of a diesel engine with a mixture of biodiesel from kemiri sunan and fossil-based diesel fuel. This study was conducted in an experimental-decriptive manner by using several level of mixture of biodiesel from 0% (B-0) to 70% (B-70) using dynamometer. Measured parameter were torsion, power, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and flue gas emission. Experimental results showed that maximum torsion could be achieved with 20% of biodiesel (B-20). Moreover, maximum thermal efficiency was achieved with fuel of 10% biodiesel (B-10).

Keywords
biodiesel, Sunan candlenut, mixed ratio, diesel engine performance

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/eX2HUYpPzxRt


Performances of the Multifunctional Farming Bulldozers in Indonesia
Budi Indra Setiawan (a*), Sam Herodian (b), Andi Amran Sulaiman (c), Chikaya Sakai (d), Meiyanto Siswandoyo (d), Nyoman Budijaya (d)

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Corresponding Author
Budi Indra Setiawan

Institutions
a) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
* budindra[at]ipb.ac.id
b) Department of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
c) Ministry of Agriculture, the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta.
d) PT. Komatsu Marketing and Support Indonesia. Jl. Raya Bekasi KM. 22 Cakung, Jakarta 13910-Indonesia

Abstract
Farming bulldozer (FB) is a heavy machine made by Komatsu specifically designed for multipurpose operations in very wide land types, from extremely dry to wet/swamplands. Basically, FB is a bulldozer but uses a wider crawler so that its Ground Pressure (GP) is about twice lower than the 4W Tractor. The FB being tested is D21PL-8 type having GP 0.19 kgf/cm2, Flywheel HP 32.4 kW 44 PS@2450 rpm, Operating Weight 4815 kg/cm2. Attached with associated implements, FB can do land clearing and leveling, land plowing and harrowing, soil puddling, subsoil draining, direct seeding, and harvesting. Tested fields are in the provinces of West Java (wet/dryland, South Sumatra (wetland), South Kalimantan (wetland), South Sulawesi (dry/wetland), West Papua (dry/wetland) and East Nusa Tenggara (dryland). In general, FB can do precise leveling in a range of 15mm in 0.15-ha tested paddy field. Worktime for plowing continued with puddling is 4.97 hours/ha and harrowing continued with puddling is 5.15 hours/ha while for hand tractor in both cases is more than 13 hours/ha. It means FB can reduce work time up to 60%. In term of yield, there is no significant difference with hand tractor which ranges from 6 t/ha to 7 t/ha. In conclusions, FB can do many tasks of land cultivations, cover a wider area of any land types, reduce labor numbers and cost and increase planting intensity. Further testing to find the optimal size of land, operation and maintenance costs and impacts on the economy, society and environment is still underway.

Keywords
Farming bulldozer; field performance; wet and drylands; paddy fields

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/8WfEVtq6ezka


Potency of image textural feature for granular size estimation
Radi1*, Muhammad Danu A. 1, Bambang Purwantana 1, Muhammad Rivai 2

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Corresponding Author
Radi Radi

Institutions
1Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora No.1 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
2Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia

Abstract
Abstract. Particle size is one of the quality attributes of a number of food products. This quality attribute often determines the taste and flavour of such food product, for example, i.e. ground coffee powder or instant coffee product. For reasons of taste and flavour, a number of food producers determine the size for each ground coffee product, as well as for the granular size of their instant coffee. The particle size is generally determined through laboratory testing, such as the use of sieves, which of course, the process is time consuming. On the other hand, a continuous food processing requires a rapid measurement process for accessing each quality product, include the particle size. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a rapid method for the particle size estimation of correspond food product. This study aims to examine image features that have potentially to estimate the particle size of granular. The research focused on the texture features extracted from the sample image. Samples of varying sizes particle are captured with a camera at a constant lighting level. A feature extraction program was developed to extract the texture features of the images. These features are then evaluated for their relationship to the granular size. The results show that a number of texture features have a strong relationship to the sample granular size and have a high chance of being used as estimating particle size.

Keywords
estimation, particle size, granular, textural feature, image processing

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/ZpnXr4qmDFW9


Rice Husk Fuel Pellet: Characterization on Physical and Thermogravimetric (TGA) Combustion Properties
Elita R Widjaya, Sigit Triwahyudi, Rosmeika, Harsono

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Corresponding Author
Elita Rahmarestia Widjaya

Institutions
Indonesian Center for Agricultural Engineering Research and Development, IAARD, Ministry of Agriculture Republic of Indonesia
Jl. Sinarmas Boulevard, Ds. Situgadung, Pagedangan
Tangerang

Abstract
Pelletization has been widely used for the densification of biomass. Recently, the demand for biomass fuel pellet is increasing leading to the use of agricultural waste as the feedstock alternative to the wood pellet. Currently, a commodity of rice husk pellet appears in the international market. In this study, the rice husk was developed into fuel pellet and characterized its physical and combustion properties. The pelleting used a flat-die roller type pelleting machine. The pre-treatments were reducing the size and mixing with a 4% gelatinized tapioca starch as the binder. The single pellet had an average diameter of 8 mm, length of 28.7 mm and weight of 1.8 g/pellet. The rice husk bulk density increased from 145 kg/m3 in raw form into 511 kg/m3 in pellet form. There were no significant different changes in pellet dimension after 14 days of pelleting. The combustion properties were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The TGA analyses were conducted using oxygen at a flow rate of 50 ml/min; the heating rates were 10o/min, 20o/min and 30o/min heated up to 950oC. This study found that the ignition and the burnout temperatures were at about 276oC and 448oC, respectively. As to the non-woody characteristic of higher cellulose than woody biomass, the rice husk pellet had a higher conversion rate at lower temperatures than that of wood pellet.

Keywords
rice husk, fuel pellet, pellet dimension, TGA analyses

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/9bthCR2V7f8y


Simulation Study of Kalman-Bucy filter Based Optimal Yaw Rate Control System for Autonomous Tractor
Widagdo Purbowaskito (a*), Mareli Telaumbanua (b)

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Corresponding Author
Widagdo Purbowaskito

Institutions
a) Department of Industrial Engineering, Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta,Jl. Babarsari, No. 43, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
*widagdo.purbowaskito[at]uajy.ac.id
b) Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Lampung, Jl. Sumantri Brodjonegoro No. 1, Gedongmeneng, Bandar Lampung 35145, Indonesia

Abstract
Unstructured agricultural field environment and varying jobs need to be done by a tractor bring the autonomous tractor subjected into the changes of its system dynamics. Due to this condition, development of autonomous tractor yaw rate dynamics control system is a challenging study. An observer based optimal controller is employed to control the autonomous tractor yaw rate dynamics control system in this simulation study. Linear quadratic regulator (LQR) is used as the optimal control algorithm, while the Kalman Bucy filter is used as the state observer of the autonomous tractor. This Kalman based LQR method works by combination of optimization and state estimation approaches. Based on the proposed method, the LQR control algorithm provides satisfactory yaw rate controller results, while the Kalman-Bucy filter provides satisfactory estimation results.

Keywords
Tractor;Steering;Control System;LQR;Kalman Filter

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/ZVkerYEGut8K


Study of Optimization of Liquid Fertilizing on Red Spinach Cultivation in A Greenhouse
Gatot Pramuhadi, Rusdi, Julia Tobing

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Corresponding Author
Gatot Pramuhadi

Institutions
Department of Mechanical and Biosystem Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia.

Abstract
The objectives of the research is to determine optimum liquid fertilizing on red spinach cultivation in a greenhouse. The research was conducted from March to April 2019 at the SprayerLaboratory and in a greenhouse to determine parameters of droplet diameter, droplet density, effective spraying width, effective spraying debit, and harvested biomass weight. Spraying tools and material are SWAN F16 electric sprayer, air blower, and liquid fertilizer. Results of the research showed that the use of the electric sprayer and the use of the electric sprayer and the air blower produced minimum droplet diameter, maximum droplet density, maximum effective spraying width, and minimum effective spraying debit were 311 micron m, 706 droplet/cm2, 56 cm, and 1.99 liter/minute and 405.14 micron m, 361 droplet/cm2, 72 cm, and 2.21 liter/minute in average respectively. The use of the electric sprayer has produced maximum harvested biomass weight of 7.17 g/plant in average on walking speed of 0.9 m/s with 1.97 liter/ha liquid fertilizer dosage. The use of the electric sprayer and the air blower have produced maximum harvested biomass weight of 4.55 g/plant in average on walking speed of 0.5 m/s with 3 liter/ha liquid fertilizer dosage.

Keywords
optimization, red spinach, electric sprayer, droplet, biomass weight

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/PYAFaZHd6MQW


Study on the pressing process of kemiri sunan oil (Reutealis trisperma) using screw-press machine at different feed material levels
Sarifah Nurjanah (a*), Javantasya Andrea Adshmiraj (a), M. Ade M.Kramadibrata (a), Mimin Muhaemin (a), Efri Mardawati (b), Totok Herwanto (a), Handarto (a), S. Rosalinda (a), Dedy Prijatna (a), Muhammad Saukat (a), Wahyu Darajat (c)

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Corresponding Author
Sarifah Nurjanah

Institutions
a*)Dept. Agriculture Engineering and Biosystem;
b) Dept. Food Technology -Faculty of Agro-Industrial Technology;
c)Dept. Pest and Diseases - Faculty of Agriculture
Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung 40115, Indonesia

Abstract
Kemiri Sunan (Reutealis trisperma) has great potential as a source of raw material for biodiesel production due to its high oil content. The oil is a non-edible oil that can be extracted using screw-press machine. In this study, a descriptive research with regression and correlation analysis was used to investigate the effect of feed material level on pressing performance and kemiri sunan oil quality. A variation of the feed material level (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kg) was fed into screw-press machine. The results showed that cylinder temperature and pressing time increased as the feed material level increased. The highest production (2.87 kg / hour) and yield (37.33%) capacity were obtained at 4 kg of the feed material level. Hence, increasing the feed material level did not affect the quality of the oil produced. Density, acid number, Free Fatty Acid (FFA), saponification number, kinematic viscosity and refractive index of oil produced ranged between 919.48-924.76 kg/m2, 30.82-47.79 mg KOH/g oil, 15.25-23.65%, 154.64 -186.84 mg KOH/g oil, 45.59-56.34 mm2/s and 0.00328-00.332 respectively.

Keywords
screw-press machine; kemiri sunan oil; feed material level; pressing performance

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/6eUR8FTx9Ntm


The effect of air temperature on rice drying rate using vertical drying machine
Syahrul (a), S Bahri (a), Nurchayati (a), Sukmawaty (b) , Guyup Mahardhian Dwi Putra (b)

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Corresponding Author
Guyup Mahardhian Dwi Putra

Institutions
a) Mechanical Engineering Department, Mataram University, Jl. Majapahit No. 62, Mataram 83125, Indonesia
*h.syahrul[at]unram.ac.id
b) Study Program of Agriculture Engineering, Mataram University, Jl. Majapahit No. 62, Mataram 83125, Indonesia

Abstract
Mechanical dryer usually using heat from combustion and air is blown through heater to the product dried. This study was conducted used a vertical dryer. The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of air temperature to drying rate and drying efficiency. The variation of the temperature used were 50C, 55C, and 60C with a tolerance of 1C with a constant mass of 20kg. The result of this study showed that the higher the dryer air temperature used, the faster the drying rate and drying time. It was found that the fastest drying rate for 60C was 0.00033804 kg/s with drying time 70 minutes. While for temperature of 50C found the longest drying rate of to reach a moisture content of 13.8% of 0.00022571 kg/s with constant air velocity of 5 m/s. The highest dried efficiency occurs at a temperature 60C.

Keywords
vertical dryer, rice, renewable energy

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/aznQfB78rUpw


The Potential Analysis of Sugarcane Litter Management With Mecahnization In Sugarcane Plantation Takalar Sugar Factory South Sulawesi
Iqbal

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Corresponding Author
Iqbal Iqbal

Institutions
Hasanuddin University

Abstract
Abstract, Sugarcane plantation of Takalar have big potential organic waste alike sugarcane litter. Sugarcane litter is organic waste that could be processed into organic fertilizer in form of compost. The objectives of this study were to determine the potential of sugarcane litter and to determine the machinery requirement for sugarcane litter management in PG Takalar. The result showed that the average availability potential of sugarcane litter in PG Takalar was 19.96% or 20% from each stem of sugarcane. In total, with 4 186 ha area of PG Takalar, the potential of sugarcane litter was 32 860 ton/year. Nowadays, in PG Takalar, the management of sugarcane litter is done conventionally by burning the litter in the field. It is also found from the study that to manage the sugarcane litter in 4 186 ha area, the number of machinery needed to support the mechanization of sugarcane litter management were 48 units of tractor, 13 units of trash rake, 31 units of trailer, 4 units of applicator, 18 units of chopper, 3 units of truck, 3 units of composting turner, and 3 units of loader.

Keywords
potential, management, mechanization, sugarcane litter, sugarcane

Topic
Energy and agricultural machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/ATM7dG2Y3nxz


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