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Abstract Topic: Engineering

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Alert System Innovation to Improve Safety Driving Through the Change Detection of Car Distance Ahead
Sugiono SUGIONO*1, Denny WIDHAYANURIYAWAN2, Debrina P. ANDRIANI 3, • Renaldi P. PRASETYA4

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Corresponding Author
sugiono sugiono

Institutions
1,3Department of Industrial Engineering, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
2Deparment of Mechanical Engineering, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
4Department of Computer Engineering, Brawijaya University, Indonesia

Abstract
Drive density and irregularity are the main factors causing accidents in Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to create an application that can identify changes in driving speed to become an early warning for drivers to make the right decisions. The initial step of this study was to study theories about changes in distance, sensor systems, and android applications. An observation of the existing traffic conditions in several locations in Indonesia plays an important role in prototype design. Assembly and accuracy test of sensor identification distance is equal to = 0.6% error. The android application successfully converted input data into a warning in the form of sound. It can be concluded that this application can provide effective early warning in the form of sound to easily understand by drivers.

Keywords
driving alert system, android application, safety driving

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/kXuR3fYG9vLQ


Disemination of Green House Dryers to Improve Efficiency of Potato Chip Process
Siti Asmaul Mustaniroh(a*); Widya Wijayanti(b), Jaya Mahar Maligan (c)

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Corresponding Author
Siti Asmaul Mustaniroh

Institutions
(a) Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology
*asmaul_m[at]ub.ac.id

(b) Deparment of Machine Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
(c) Department of Agricultural Product Technology,
Faculty of Agricultural Technology

Universitas Brawijaya
Jalan Veteran, Malang, East Java, Indonesia

Abstract
Batu City is a potential agricultural area for the development of horticultural-based agroindustry among other potatoes and potato chips which is one of the objectives in the Batu City for the next 5 years to give priority to development in the SME,s agriculture and tourism business as a function of community empowerment. SMEs"Rama"is a potato chip production partner in the village of Bulukerto, Batu City with problems are technological limitations in the process of drying potato chips manually and not yet efficient for productivity, only reaching 50% of consumer demand. The drying process relies on sunlight for 10-12 hours (dry season) and 2-3 days (rainy season). The purpose of the application of this appropriate technology is to improve the efficiency of the drying process of potato chips by disseminating Green House Dryers so that the products are more engineered. The results achieved increased efficiency and productivity in the use of labor (time spent working for the drying process will decrease initially 75% to 30%), production capacity and product supply can be achieved according to consumer demand and energy efficiency because it combines heat from the sun and energy which is regulated by a control system so that it will be more energy efficient, minimal production costs and optimal drying time.

Keywords
diseemination; efficiency;green house dryers

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/t6cRupk7ZxQh


Edible Film Cassava Starch/Eggshell Powder Composite Containing Antioxidant: Preparation and Characterization
Iryanti Fatyasari Nata*, Chairul Irawan, Mariatul Adawiyah, Sigit Ariwibowo

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Corresponding Author
Iryanti Fatyasari Nata

Institutions
Lambung Mangkurat University

Abstract
Edible film is a thin layer that can consume and as a protective food from environment affect such as water vapor, oxygen, and moisture. The edible film which has antioxidant could be preventing from bacterial activity. The source of antioxidant is from “Kelakai” extract. This aims of this study are to evaluate the effect of eggshell powder concentration and cassava starch as raw material for edible film production and study the physical and chemical properties of edible film produced. The edible film was made from a mixture of chicken eggshell powder (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, wt/v) and cassava starch (5% wt/v) in distilled water then added 1.5% v/v of glycerol and 5% v/v of Kelakai extract. The mixture was heated up to ± 96 ºC, 100 rpm for 40 min. Then, mixture was poured into the mold (20 cm x 10 cm) and dried in an oven at 50 ºC for 24 h. The best composition of edible film produced with 10% of eggshell powder which has thickness of 0.174 mm, 1.5 MPa of tensile strength, 27% of elongation at elongation at break. The surface morphology of edible film was shown the rough surface and transparent which contains of CH, OH, and C = O groups that identified by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) analysis. The antioxidant activity of edible film was shown by scavenging activity about 5.12% after 10 min.

Keywords
edible film; eggshell powder; cassava starch; kelakai

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/MRwhfbrLQ3AH


Effect of Acid Concentration on the Aluminum Leaching Process
Agus Mirwan*, Meilana Dharma Putra, Riani Ayu Lestari

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Corresponding Author
Agus Mirwan

Institutions
Chemical Engineering Department, Lambung Mangkurat Universisty, Banjarmasin, Indonesia
*agusmirwan[at]ulm.ac.id

Abstract
This paper explains a study on microwave-assisted leaching of aluminum from peat clay. Microwave-assisted leaching was undertaken using the Pyrex glass reactor in a modified microwave oven. A research was made of the effect of acid concentration, microwave power, temperature, and reaction time on the aluminum leaching recovery. The dominant presence of aluminous minerals determined leaching of aluminum values in hydrochloric acid medium at different concentration and microwave power. The optimum leaching ratio for 4 M hydrochloric acid concentration, 40 °C temperature, and 15 min reaction time was obtained 67% dan 46,6% for 100 W dan 80 W respectively. The microwave assisted leaching is more efficient about overall aluminum dissolution.

Keywords
acid leaching; aluminum; microwave; peat clay

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/2abuRqz3VxZt


Enhancing Biogas Production from Empty Fruit Oil Palm Bunches (EFOB) Part I: Influence of Biological Pre-treatment on the Characteristics
Reny Nurul Utami, Martasari Beti Pangestuti, Nur Hidayat, Sri Suhartini*

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Corresponding Author
Sri Suhartini

Institutions
Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang

Abstract
Empty fruit oil palm bunches (EFOB) is one of the abundant lignocellulosic biomass in Indonesia. However, high lignin content in EFOB has becoming one of the obstacles in valorising it as bioenergy resources, as it is hardly breakdown by the microorganisms. Therefore, pre-treatment is often needed to enhance the biodegradation process of organic content in EFOB. This study was aimed to investigate impact of biological pre-treatment using fungi on the EFOB characteristics and to estimate the biogas production and its conversion to electricity. The biological pre-treatment on EFOB is besieged to enhance the utilisation of EFOB as bioenergy resources. In this study, EFOB was treated using Phanerocheate chrysosporium under standard condition and incubated for 7 and 14 days. The results showed that fungi pre-treatment was able to reduce the amount of lignin concentration, which indicating that more lignin was broken down into other easily degradable organic material compounds. The calorific values of EFOB after pre-treatment also increased alongside with the increase in incubation time, which also indicating a higher energy potential. Estimation on electrical potential based on CHNS values was also indicating the same trends. Treated EFOB has more electricity and heath production compared to that of untreated EFOB. Further research, however, is still required to have in-depth understanding on improving the efficacy of biogas production by incorporating a green pre-treatment using biological pathway approach.

Keywords
bioenergy, biological pre-treatment, Phanerocheate chrysosporium, EFOB

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/Ur34EHVWwmLx


Hydrolysis of Cassava Peel Starch into Glucose over Sulfonated Solid Acid Catalyst Generated from Palm Empty Fruit Bunches
Iryanti Fatyasari Nata, Chairul Irawan, Meilana Dharma Putra, Yulia Nurul Ma-rifah, Alfian, Galacaesar A Khambali

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Corresponding Author
Iryanti Fatyasari Nata

Institutions
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat
University

Abstract
The new developed sulfonated solid acid catalyst (SSAC) was prepared by carbonization of palm empty fruit bunches (PEFB) then followed by sulfonation. The sulfonation and acidity functionalization on catalyst was conducted in the presence of 10% hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid (v/v) as co-polymer generated by hydrothermal process at 180°C for 4h in Teflon Stainless Steel Autoclave. The SSAC is providing a good catalytic activity for hydrolysis of cassava peel starch. The hydrolysis performance was investigated by variation of cassava peel concentration and reaction time. The Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration was achieved about 13.54 mg/mL which obtained by hydrolyzing of 5% (w/v) of cassava peel starch at 100°C for 1 h using 5% (w/v) of SSAC. The SSAC demonstrated good stability with only 6% derivation in TRS concentration after 3 repetitions.

Keywords
Acid Catalyst, Biocarbon, Sulfonation, Sulfonated, Palm Empty Bunch Fruit

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/aHMDEA6nNFzj


Impact of Salinity on Stabilized Leachate Treatment from Ozonation Process
Iva Yenis Septiariva1, I Wayan Koko Suryawan2, Anshah Silmi Afifah3, Nurul Ulfah4

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Corresponding Author
I Wayan Koko Suryawan

Institutions
1 Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia
2 Universitas Pertamina, Jakarta, Indonesia
3 Universitas Universal, Batam, Indonesia
4 Politeknik Negeri Batam, Batam, Indonesia

Abstract
One of the most important problems in landfilling process is long term due to the potential of landfill to pose leachate that can contaminate water and environment. Generally, leachate generated from TPA Indonesia has high salinity and organic matter during the dry season. Increase of salinity might deteriorate the activity of the microorganisms on process of decomposition. In this research, an ozonation technique was investigated, aiming to provide an efficient method for the treatment of stabilized leachate. The parameter tested is pH, COD, BOD5 and BOD5 /COD ratio. Variable of this study were salinity with different operating conditions from ±0.4 ppt; ±5 ppt; ±10 ppt; and ±20 ppt by applying an ozone dose of 600 mg/hour with up to 60 minutes of contact time. Experimental results showed that salinity ranging from 0.4 ppt to 20 ppt had no significant effect on COD removal, and the removal efficiency was only more than 30%. On the contrary, ozonation process gave better organic removal with increased BOD5 concentration from 426 mg/L to 887 mg/L in low salinity conditions (0.4 ppt). Meanwhile, it had a significant effect on the old leachate treatment, where the leachate biodegradability can increase from 0.120 (initial condition) to 0.321 with addition salinity concentration of 20 ppt.

Keywords
leachate; stabilized leachate; salinity; ozonation

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/eFBUEqR4kPJ6


Investigation of Groundwater Aquifer at Noborejo, Salatiga Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Method
Mayang Bunga Puspita(a*), Imam Suyanto(b)

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Corresponding Author
Mayang Bunga Puspita

Institutions
(a)Geophysical Engineering Sub-Department, Universitas Brawijaya
Jalan Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia
*mayang.puspita[at]ub.ac.id
(b)Geophysical Sub-Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia

Abstract
Local Water Supply Utility (PDAM) of Salatiga planned to build three new wells to meet the need for clean water and increase the number of customers in Salatiga. The plans for the construction of the new wells are located in Randuancir, Kumpulrejo and Noborejo Sub-Districts. The groundwater aquifer layer in Noborejo Village is detected using the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method, while the determination of the depth of aquifer layer will be controlled by the results of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) data processing. 4 ERT lines and 4 VES points were acquired in 2017. The processing results show that water-containing layer tends to have a lower resistivity value. In the study area, 2 types of aquifers were found, namely unconfined aquifer (usually exploited using dug wells), and confined aquifer which are generally located on the deeper depth. Unconfined aquifers are identified with a lower resistivity value than its surroundings (20-80 Ωm) with an average depth of 25 m on all lines. Whereas confined aquifer has a higher resistivity in the range of 90 Ωm. However, confined aquifers are only found with certainty in Line 1, while in other Lines the possibility of a confined aquifers existence is smaller.

Keywords
Salatiga; Aquifer; Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES)

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/TfKAv8UtxwkN


Mount Bromo Eruption Disaster Preparedness with Android Mobile Based Application
Fadly Usman, Septiana Hariyani, Eddi Basuki Kurniawan, and Mukhamad Fathoni

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Corresponding Author
Fadly Usman

Institutions
1) Departement of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
2) Departement of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

Abstract
In the last 10 years, Mount Bromo has erupted three times; 2010, 2015 and 2019. However, it is unique that Tengger peoples are reluctant to evacuate even though Mount Bromo is erupting and releasing volcanic material such as stones and dust. Mount Bromo itself is a mountain made by caldera with an area about 10 square kilometers. This makes Mount Bromo relatively safe while an eruption occurs because volcanic material with a large size and weight will fall around the caldera, only dust that is blown by the wind will be continued as far as miles from the crater of Bromo which depends on the direction of the wind. Using the smartphone application as the Mount Bromo information facilities is one of an effort so that people and tourists can activate if an eruption occurs. There is important information about features made in the application such as shelters distribution, evacuation routes, health centers, photos, videos, and other important informations. Assesment results to the application interface, the information conveyed, and also the features offered show that the application is very useful and gives a new perspective in conveying accurate information to the public and also tourists. The level of community satisfaction is also quite good with the services provided by the Bromo preparedness application. Great expectations from the public and also respondents can see Mount Bromo further through CCTV cameras that are directly connected to the Android application.

Keywords
Bromo Preparedness; Eruption; Evacuation; Shelter; Android Application

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/a4DvwXbfAk3V


Organic Phase Change Materials and Its Application for Thermal Energy Storage in Building - on Review
I M Astika, I N S Winaya, I D G A Subagia, I K G Wirawan

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Corresponding Author
I Made Astika

Institutions
Doctoral Study Program of Engineering Science, Faculty of Engineering, Udayana University, Kampus Sudirman Denpasar, Bali 80234, Indonesia.

Mechanical Engineering Department of Udayana University, Street of Bukit
Jimbaran, Badung, Bali 80361, Indonesia.

Abstract
The rapid growth of population, economic and technology has lead to greater energy demand. At present, the building sector is the dominant energy user. The use of renewable energy, such as PCM is one alternative to reduce energy consumption in buildings. Phase change materials (PCMs) is a material that can absorb and store heat energy when there is a surplus and release it when there is a deficit using the principle of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage (LHTES). Phase change material has shown great potential as an alternative for future energy systems. This is because phase change materials can be applied over a wide temperature range and are suitable for various heat storage system designs. Organic, inorganic and eutectic PCM are a type of phase change material in terms of their chemical composition. Direct incorporation, encapsulation, immersion, shape-stabilization and stable form composite PCM are several methods for incorporating PCM into a construction materials and elements. This review focused on organic PCM technologies developed for the building. The review covers the thermal characteristics of various organic PCM and their applications for thermal energy storage in buildings. The main conclusions taken from the review show the organic PCM has a great potential to applications and to enhance the thermal performance of buildings

Keywords
organic phase change materials, thermal energy storage, building

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/kGZegaFNCYdA


Phytoremediation of effluent textile WWTP for NH3-N and Cu Reduction using Pistia stratiotes
I Wayan Koko Suryawan1, Anshah Silmi Afifah2, Iva Yenis Septiariva3, Muhammad Rizki Apritama2

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Corresponding Author
I Wayan Koko Suryawan

Institutions
1Universitas Pertamina, Jakarta, Indonesia
2Universitas Universal, Batam, Indonesia
3Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia

Abstract
Effluent quality of typical conventional treated textile wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) become environmental problem because of high levels of nutrients and metals. Nutrients and metals regulated in the quality standard are NH3-N and Cu. NH3-N and Cu reduction can used phytoremidiation as post-treatment. This study aims to determine the phytoremediation process of pistia stratiotes to NH3-N and Cr removal. The steps of the research were conducting range finding and running test. The range finding test effluent textile WWTP concentration was 20%; 40%; 60%; and 80%. In the range finding test process for 21 days, the number of dead pistia straiotes was 0%; 4%; 12%; and 16% of the total test biota were 25. In the running test with 100% effluent textile WWTP, NH3-and Cu removal are 71.25% and 63.32%, respectively.

Keywords
NH3-N, Cu, textile WWTP, pistia straiotes

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/9vhPGgpdtKmL


Removal Phospate-containing Detergent Wastewater by Mg-Al(NO3) Layered Double Hydroxide
Chairul Irawan (a, *), Ayu Ratma Sari (a), Fakhrin Rizaldi (a), Iryanti Fatyasari Nata (a), Meilana Dharma Putra (a)

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Corresponding Author
Chairul Irawan

Institutions
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University
Jl. A. Yani Km. 36, Banjarbaru, Kalimantan Selatan, 70714 Indonesia
* cirawan[at]ulm.ac.id

Abstract
Detergent wastewater contains high phosphate concentrations, so that if the wastewater is directly disposed of into a ditch or river then the wastewater can cause water pollution and cause eutrophication. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are synthetic materials with positively charged pyruvate type coatings of mixed metal hydroxides by chemical precipitation method. The purpose of this study is to find out the efficiency of phosphate-containing detergent wastewater adsorption using Mg-Al(NO3) LDH. The morphological structure of LDH by the SEM-EDS analysis method shows a loose lamellar structure with a particle size of about 1 μm, and the composition of Mg-Al(NO3) LDH by the XRF analysis method shows that the Mg and Al elements dominate more than other elements. Batch adsorption experimental conducted for detergent wastewater, which is where in this study the phosphate content was of ca. 51.50 mg / L The equilibrium time of the adsorption process using Mg-AL(NO3) LDH is achieved after 60 minutes. The mole ratio of Mg : Al composition of LDH in the adsorption process has slightly affects the decrease in phosphate shown by a mole ratio of 1 : 1, 2 : 1 and 3 : 1 using Mg-Al (NO3) LDH as adsorbent at dose of 1 g, stirring rate of 100 rpm, 60 minutes, and at room temperature that is equal to 4.15 mg/L, 4. 14 mg/L and 4.08 mg/L, respectively. Mg-Al(NO3) LDH is promising an adsorbent for phosphate removal in detergent wastewater.

Keywords
adsorption; detergent wastewater; LDH; phosphate

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/N67fZECaLuFk


Treatment of Textile Wastewater By Adsorption Using Powdered Activated Carbon
Iva Yenis Septiariva1, I Wayan Koko Suryawan2, Nia Febrianti3, Marita Wulandari3

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Corresponding Author
I Wayan Koko Suryawan

Institutions
1 Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia
2 Universitas Pertamina, Jakarta, Indonesia
3 Institut Teknologi Kalimantan, Balikpapan, Indonesia

Abstract
Textile wastewater is nowadays a major polluters of surface water contaminations. Generally, textile industry uses variety of synthetic dyes that produced a large amount of highly coloured wastewater. It also has an effect on aquatic life due to low oxygen consumption and light penetration. Therefore, this textile wastewater must be treated prior discharging to environment. This research aims to investigate the removal of colour by adsorption technique using activated carbon. Meanwhile this method is considered to be a low cost technology and easy maintenance for wastewater treatment. Batch adsorption process was carried out with different contact time of 5–60 minutes and varied initial concentration that containing Reactive Black 5 (RB-5) of 5 mg/L; 10 mg/L; 15 mg/L; and 20 mg/L. The results showed that the adsorption process was able to decrease the levels of colour concentration by 86.21%; 85.21%; 84.29% and 71.07% respectively for a period of 60 minutes. Increase in dye concentration in wastewater caused the low colour removal efficiency. Additionally, the research gave the effectiveness of batch adsorption process by activated carbon because the colour removal efficiency can reach more than 50% after 30 minutes contact time. It can be seen in the initial concentration of 5 mg/L and 20 mg/L with removal efficiency of 66.18% and 53.97%.

Keywords
Textile wastewater, adsorption, activated carbon, colour removal

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/kzQUcDLtB3gr


Utilization of Plastic Waste Processing for Oil Fuel at Tambaan Beach, Pasuruan City.
Rudianto1, Erni Yudaningtyas 2. Tri Djoko Lelono3, Rarasrum Dyah Kasitowati 4.

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Corresponding Author
Rudianto Rudianto

Institutions
1). Marine Science Study Program, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia
2). Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
3). Fisheries Resource Utilization Study Program, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia
4). Marine Science Study Program, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Abstract
The amount of waste in Indonesia is estimated to reach 68 million tons in 2019, of which 9.52 million tons is plastic waste. With this amount, Indonesia is ranked second in the world as the largest producer of plastic waste. One area that suffers from plastic waste is the coastal area. This plastic waste is difficult to decompose and cause environmental problems. Likewise, it happened on the Tambaan coast in Tambaan sub-district, Panggungrejo sub-district, Pasuruan city. Current conditions of plastic waste accumulate throughout the coastal area. The accumulation of scattered plastic waste and its proximity to the residents settlements has become a hotbed of mosquitoes and a pungent smell. The Serving Doctoral Program at Universitas Brawijaya offers a solution to process plastic waste into fuel oil such as diesel, kerosene, and premium. The technology used is Muryanis distillation from Wlingi, Blitar Regency. The destroyer can change certain types of plastic waste to produce fuel. Karangtaruna Bina Hangtuah will be a reliable partner to be able to assist implementation in the field. This Serving Doctoral program aims to strengthen the capacity of Karangtaruna in Tambaan Village to be more concerned about the environmental problems of Tambaan beach by processing waste that has been polluted by plastic waste. The method of Muryanis distillation technology application processes plastic waste into BBM. The results of plastic waste treatment show that 10 kg of plastic waste that has been dried and distilled into diesel is 60%, 35% premium, and 15% kerosene.

Keywords
Plastic waste; distillation; diesel; premium; kerosene

Topic
Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/aNdz6qHY8mTy


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