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Exploratory Study on the Association of Land Tenure System to Farming Household Food Access in Selected Barangays in North Cotabato, Mindanao, Philippines
Camille A. Villapando Cherry Lou R. Nuñez Rachelle A. Mariano Faustino Q. Arrienda Melodee Marciana E. De Castro

Department of Agribusiness Management and Entrepreneurship
College of Economics and Management
University of the Philippines Los Baños


The Philippines is considered to have one of the worst land tenure problems in the world (Vargas, 2003). Agricultural families have more poverty incidence than non-agricultural households in the Philippines where land access is limited for poor farmers and agricultural tenancy is still the common practice (Ravanera, 2017). Agriculture remains as the main source of livelihood for Filipinos in rural areas, thus access to land is a necessity in alleviating poverty and attainment of food security. People are considered food secure when they have availability and adequate access at all times to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life (Word Food Program, n.d.) Food security has four main dimensions: 1) food availability; 2) food access; 3) food utilization; and 4) stability (Burchi, 2011). This study explores the association of land tenure to food access in selected barangays in the municipality of Pigcawayan situated in the North Cotabato province of the Mindanao peninsula. The Municipality of Pigcawayan is a highly agricultural area where the main crops are rice and corn. The three barangays covered in the study were North Manuangan, Bulu-an and Bulucaon. North Manuangan and Bulu-an are generally peaceful areas. North Manuangan, however, is near Liguasan marsh where the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) traverse to get to their camps. Thus, farming in these two barangays is occasionally affected by military and rebel conflicts. Bulucaon, on the other hand, is a flood prone area adjacent to conflict areas where hostage takings happen from time to time. More frequent disruptions in farming activities occur in this barangay. Using the chi square test of association on land tenure variables (zero harvest payment agreement, confidence in tenancy, range of number of sacks sold, and percent payment) and food variables (experience hunger with no money, experience credit for food, and days without enough food), results showed a significant association at alpha 0.05 between zero harvest payment agreement and confidence in tenancy with days without enough food. At alpha 0.10, results showed a significant association between zero harvest payment agreement and confidence in tenancy with experience hunger with no money and days without enough food. Based on the focus group discussion conducted on 56 respondents, the study showed that while the farmers can eat three times a day, their access to food can only be sustained if they would continuously work, even on land recovery days, in order to generate enough income to buy food for household consumption.

Keywords: Farming

Topic: International Conference of Islamic Economic and Financial Inclusion


Conference: The 3rd International Conference on Sustainability and Innovation (ICoSI 2019)

Plain Format | Corresponding Author (Syadan Ismail)

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