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Abstract Topic: Agricultural structures and environmental engineering

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Analysis of Wind Factor-Based Ventilation Rate on a Naturally Ventilated Single-span Greenhouse
Handarto, Muhammad Saukat, Totok Herwanto, Anggis Utomo Putri

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Corresponding Author
Handarto Handarto

Institutions
Department of Agricultural Engineering and Biosystem
Faculty of Agro-industrial Technology
Universitas Padjadjaran

Abstract
The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of side ventilator opening on ventilation rate based on wind factors and its effects on air temperature and relative humidity in a naturally ventilated single-span greenhouse. Front-and rear side ventilator openings are set-up in four levels: fully close, one-third open, two-third open, and fully open. Air temperature and relative humidity are observed under three levels of solar radiation intensities: less than 400 W.m-2, 400-800 W.m-2, and more than 800 W.m-2. The ventilation rate is analized using the wind pressure coefficient method by calculating the internal pressure coefficient in the greenhouse. The distribution of air temperature and air flow at constant wind speeds is depicted by CFD simulation. At all conditions of solar radiation intensities, the air temperature in the greenhouse exceeds the optimum temperature for cherry tomato plants in the generative growth phase. These indicated that the natural ventilation rate has not been able to lower the air temperature in the greenhouse for cherry tomato plants. At the constant wind speed conditions, the ventilation rate increse with increasing the ventilator opening. At a constant wind speed of 4 m.s-1, the maximum ventilation rates observed when all ventilators fully open and wind direction is perpendicular to side ventilators. The maximum ventilation rates at front-side ventilator, roof ventilator and rear-side ventilator are 0.277 kg.m-2.s-1, -0.5049 kg.m-2.s-1 and 0.228 kg.m-2.s-1, respectively.

Keywords
CFD; Natural ventilation; Single-span greenhouse; Ventilation rate; Wind pressure coefficient

Topic
Agricultural structures and environmental engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/zfpFwZnTgC8P


Characterization of Sulfited Fat From Limed Hides Fleshing as a Leather Fatliquor
Sugihartono, Dona Rahmawati, Ageng Priatni

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Corresponding Author
Sugihartono -

Institutions
Center for Leather, Rubber and Plastics
Ministry of Industry

Abstract
The limed fleshing is generated in the beam house process, is the largest amount of waste, rots easily and causes a pungent smell that pollutes the environment. The use of limed fleshing in fatliquor is an effort to suppress the occurrence of pollution. The purpose of this study is to determine the physico-chemical properties of fatliquor from limed fleshing. Delimed fleshing with ammonium sulfate and water on a rotating drum. Fat was extracted from delimed fleshing using the wet rendering method and purified using n-hexane. The fat from delimed fleshing was characterized and then processed into a fatliquor. The fatliquors is prepared by reacting fat with aqueous sodium bisulfite (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mol / kg based on fatty matters) at a temperature of 85o C for 2 hours. The results showed that fat from limed fleshing can be used to produce fatliquors substances. Based on the physico-chemical properties, the best fatliquors agent is prepared by treating sodium bisulfite with 2.0 mol / kg based on fatty matters.

Keywords
sulfited fat, waste, fleshing, fatliquor, leather

Topic
Agricultural structures and environmental engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/zrfwFWd8Kcjn


EFFECT OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY TO FLOOD DISASTER IN BANDAR LAMPUNG CITY
Muhammad Amin, Ahmad Tusi, Ridwan

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Amin

Institutions
Lampung University

Abstract
The research aims at to analyze climate variability and flood disaster in Bandar Lampung City. The growth of Bandar Lampung City cause increasing of number and population density that imbalances with the availability of existing land. The area of buildings that increased and the green land is that decreased. Reducing of open areas as water catchment areas in Bandar Lampung City resulted rainwater in the area can not be infiltrated and will cause the increasing of runoff water. In addition, the drainage factor worsened the situation, drainage channel capacity as a saving of runoff water is not able to accommodate runoff water so that cause flood incident in Bandar Lampung City getting worse. Most areas have D2 and D3 climate type with wet month of 3-4 months, respectively. In addition, the trend of air temperature variability and increased rainfall will add the frequency of flood disaster in the Bandar Lampung City. Sub-district areas are often submerged: Tanjung Karang Timur (16,76 Ha), Teluk Betung Selatan (16.45 Ha), Panjang District (8.5 Ha), Sukarame (8 Ha). The average height of the puddle is 0.5 meters, the highest inundation occurs in the Ketapang South Teluk Betung neighborhood with a puddle of 1.7 meters, 48-hour pool puddle and frequency 12 times per year. The 48-hour longest flood occurred in Panjang and Teluk Betung South.

Keywords
climate variability, rain trends, flood disaster

Topic
Agricultural structures and environmental engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/jPNYbrEqG3Vk


Eichornia crassipes Potency as Hyperaccumulator Macrophyte in Phytoremediation of Acid Mine Drainage Containing Zn
Dira Alifa; Setyo S. Moersidik

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Corresponding Author
Dira Alifa

Institutions
Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

Abstract
Under present investigation, Eichornia crassipes (water hyacinth) has been tested in knowing the applicability of this macrophyte as phytoremediator of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) is utilized in analysing the accumulation of important heavy metal zinc (Zn) within plant tissues parallel with adaptive responses due to physiological and biochemical matters during exposure of actual AMD and artificial AMD having different concentrations (10, 20, and 30 mg/L of Zn) and extreme pH (3.0). There is slow-but-steady significant increase in pH along with no morphological symptoms in exposure of artificial AMD. Conversely, in 2-weeks exposure of actual AMD there is critical morphological symptoms due to its toxicity in exposure of multi-metals along with immediate increase in the first 3-days and slow decrease in 11-days after for pH value. The decreasing in Zn concentration for both actual and artificial AMD is occurred even in high level concentration. The final concentration of Zn didn not meet the quality standard, so it needs to be a serial treatment with each treatment has 1 week in retention time. Overall this methodology is applicable for the removal of Zn in AMD that has single-metal or various-metals in any amounts that is negligible or under its lethal dosage.

Keywords
AMD, Adaptive Response, Eichornia crassipes, Zinc Removal

Topic
Agricultural structures and environmental engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/FAyeJc2nDKYt


Enhancement of Droplets Quality for Fog Cooling System in A Naturally-ventilated Greenhouse Using Axial and Centrifugal Fans
Handarto, Dwi Rustam Kendarto, Muhammad Saukat, Totok Herwanto, Kingdomen Pandiangan

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Corresponding Author
Handarto Handarto

Institutions
Department of Agricultural Engineering and Biosystem
Faculty of Agro-industrial Engineering
Universitas Padjadjaran

Abstract
A fog cooling system is applied to maintain the desired air temperature and humidity in a greenhouse. For the effective application of this system, droplet sizes belonging to the fog criteria (less than 60 micron) and its uniformity are important parameters that need to be achieved. The objective of this research is to analyze usage of axial and centrifugal fans in order to enhance quality of droplets that generated through 0.1-mm nozzles. The axial fans are installed behind nozzles while the centrifugal fans are installed 80 cm in front of nozzles. The smaller size and more uniform of droplets could create the micro-climate changes in greenhouse become more uniform. The sizes of droplets resulted by axial fan, centrifugal fan, and both axial and centrifugal fans are 11.90 micron, 5.28 micron and 2.69 micron, respectively. The smaller size and more uniform of droplets could create the micro-climate changes in greenhouse become more uniform. Electric energy consumption for axial and centrifugal fans during 62 cycle (6 h 2 min) on fog cooling system is the smallest compare to the other electrical equipments (fogging pump, relay and solenoid valve). Electric energy before and after using axial and centrifugal fans are 6,002.34 kJ and 6,094.29 kJ, respectively.

Keywords
Axial fan; Centrifugal fan; Droplet quality; Fog cooling system; Greenhouse

Topic
Agricultural structures and environmental engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/XLpyZcGEkK82


Monitoring Early Stage of Rice Crops Growth using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index generated from UAV
Rhushalshafira Rosle (a), Nik Norasma CheYa (a,*), Nor Athirah Roslin (a), Rowena Mat Halip (a) and Mohd Razi Ismail (b)

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Corresponding Author
RHUSHALSHAFIRA ROSLE

Institutions
a) Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

b) Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security (ITAFoS),
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: niknorasma[at]upm.edu.my

Abstract
Remote sensing is a tool to gather the information about an object or any phenomenon without direct contact or damaging the objects. This technology had numerous application and one of it is in agriculture. Unlike tradition agriculture practiced that difficult to execute and required a large number of man power, implementing this technology will increase the production yield of the crops and improved the agriculture sector in managing and controlling. Remote sensing were able to forecast the crop production, identified the crop type, assess the crop damage and monitoring its progress. Therefore, this research was conducted in order to monitor the early stage of growth of rice crop planted by the farmers in the paddy field using remote sensing. To do so, popular empirical vegetation index known as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) generated from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was selected to monitor the changes of rice crop starting from the day it been planted until eleventh day of planted. Early stage of monitoring the crop growth using NDVI is a best approach to practice. Any damages that occur during this stage will affect the yield production and economy. Result from image analysis shown that NDVI were able to observe the rice crop growth and able to locate the damage part in the paddy plot. Fast action can be made by the farmers to counter attack the damage and treat the problematic points.

Keywords
Remote sensing; precision agriculture; NDVI; vegetation index; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Topic
Agricultural structures and environmental engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/CMV4L8bukmzN


OPTIMALISATION OF UPJA INCOME USING PROGRAMMING LINEAR IN CENTRAL LAMPUNG
Sandi Asmara1, Winda Rahmawati2, Siti Suharyatun3, Sasongko Aji Wibowo4

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Corresponding Author
sandi asmara

Institutions
1,2,3 Lecturers of Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung
4 Alumni of Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung

Abstract
GapoktanRejo Asri Lamteng is a Gapoktan which has an Alsintan Service Provider Business (UPJA) for Rice production. This UPJA has several tools and machines which are cultivated in rice production, including: tractors, hand tractors, transplanters, hand sprayers and power weeder as well as combine harvester. Tool management, especially in maximizing revenue gains from the management of tools and machines is a problem that is faced, because of the benefits. new break even stage between business income and expenditure. Constraints on the extent of claim for each tool, equipment rental time, tool working hours, number of operators, operational costs, and rejuvenation costs for each tool still cannot be harmonized, so that it has not been able to achieve maximum profit. Therefore the application of the Simplex Method from the Linear Programing program which aims to maximize the benefits of UPJA is the background of this research. The research method used is a quantitative method using Linear Programing analysis method using QM-For Windows V helper software. 5. The results showed that Linear Function for the Zmax objective function = 4.305.000X1 + 3.255.000X2 + 3.258.500X3 + 16,800,000X4, where X1, X2, X3, and X4 are Tractors, Tractor Hand, Transplanters, and Combine Harvester respectively. And the equation of the constraint function P1 (Land Area) = 60X1 + 120X2 + 56X3 + 120X4 <= 9408, P2 (Rental Time) = 240X1 + 240X2 + 240X3 + 240X4 <= 1448, P3 (Tool Hours) = 56X1 + 120X2 + 56X3 + 120X4 <= 1448, P4 (Number of Operators) = X1 + 2X2 + 3X3 + 4X4 <= 10, P5 (Operating Costs) = 290000X1 + 290000X2 + 835000X3 + 800000X4 <= 38545000, P6 (Equipment Rejuvenation Costs) = 123000X1 + 93000X2 + 199500X3 + 240000X4 <= 11836500. Conclusion, after optimization, solutions of solutions X1, X2, X3, and X4 are 4.71, 0, 0, and 1.32, the total overall profit obtained by the Gapoktan Rejo Asri from the UPJA is Rp. 42,494,670. , for one planting season (MT) and for the Cropping Index in Seputih Raman Subdistrict, 2 is made in one year is Rp. 84,989,340, assuming profitability is in accordance with the objective function and the same constraint function.

Keywords
Gapoktan, Rice Cultivation, UPJA, Linear Programing,

Topic
Agricultural structures and environmental engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/BVt8zy97NYFr


Phytoremediation Potential of Pistia stratiotes to Reduce High Concentration of Copper (Cu) in Acid Mine Drainage
Varentia Zahrah Novita (a*), Setyo Sarwanto Moersidik (b)

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Corresponding Author
Varentia Zahrah Novita

Institutions
a,b) Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
*varentiazahra[at]gmail.com

Abstract
Acid mine drainage (AMD) contains high concentration of various heavy metals and low pH levels, ranging between 2 and 4. The water samples used for this research are an artificial AMD, with varying concentration levels of copper (5 and 7 mg/l), and also an actual AMD. The pH level is designed to be 4, where the designed pH level illustrates the actual characteristics of an AMD. The data for this research (pH and copper levels) are taken for 14 days. This research shows that exposure of both the artificial AMD and actual AMD cause physiological effects to Pistia stratiotes, indicated by chlorosis of the plant starting from day 3 of the research. Furthermore, the result of this research illustrates that Pistia stratiotes is able to alter the artificial AMDs pH level from 4 to 7,3 in 14 days. This plant is also capable of reducing the copper content as much as 92,45% and 88,00% with initial concentrations of 5,3 mg/l and 7,5 mg/l respectively in 14 days, with peak removal at day 3. It can be concluded that Pistia stratiotes is able to neutralize pH level and decrease copper contents in artificial AMD.

Keywords
Acid mine drainage; Copper removal; Phytoremediation; Pistia stratiotes

Topic
Agricultural structures and environmental engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/TH8LjEdbMe9m


PLANT GROWTH MONITORING AND TREE INVENTORY OF BLACK PEPPER OF UPMKB FARM
Zanariah, Z. W. N. (a)*, Zul Lailee , K. S. (a), Rasyidah, M. A. (b)

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Corresponding Author
Wan Nor Zanariah Zainol Abdullah

Institutions
(a) Department of Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Sciences and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus Sarawak, Malaysia.
(b) Department of Agricultural Science, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus Sarawak, Malaysia.

Abstract
The use of geospatial technology is increasing in various sector including agriculture and agronomy sectors. It is commonly use in monitoring of agricultural activity as well as it is become a good resource to increase the agricultural production. As black pepper is one of the important cash crops supporting the livelihood of about 67000 rural dwellers in upland areas of Sarawak, Malaysia. Thus, black pepper crop is selected as a main target in this study. This study is conducted to monitor black pepper growth through field measurement and vegetation indices, to develop pepper inventory as well as to provide proper mapping system of pepper farm. As a pilot study to observe the black pepper cultivation in Sarawak, pepper farm at UPM Bintulu Sarawak Campus is selected as a study area. Digital Pepper Farm is in line with the current initiative by Sarawak Government, Sarawak Digital Economy Strategy 2018 to 2022 and agriculture is one of its strategic actions, objectively to improve productivity and efficiency of the agricultural sector by adopting ICT and digital technologies. Mapping of black pepper plantation is important as it gives spatial information and usable way to manage the available sources such as water, fertilizer and herbicide. Mapping is one of the ways to represent geographical data in a usable way and a basic need to operate any variable rate application machine in precision agriculture. Crop mapping is one of the crucial method need to be done in order to create crop inventory. A map of tree locations could reveal growth patterns across the landscape. GPS field data (tree locations) as well as inventory data such as tree height, number of leafs on the tree, number of bud appeared of the individual young pepper trees; as well as other features at the farm will be collected. At the same time, multi-spectral and multi temporal optical image of Landsat 8 will be analyzed for the periodical crop growth performance. Images data were collected through the reflection of (red, green, blue and near infrared, NIR) wavelength. Data extraction analysis will be done through the vegetation index analysis (VIA). Both results from the field data collection and software analyzed are significant in the development of base map and inventory system for the Digital Sarawak pepper farming at UPM Bintulu Sarawak Campus (UPMKB). In addition, an inventory of black pepper tree locations provides invaluable information about the current condition of the farm, production status and potential economic value of the land. Pepper tree inventory is relevant for plantation managers to estimate stand, yield and production cost per unit area for decision making in replacing missing trees and replanting old stand.

Keywords
Black pepper, plant growth monitoring, mapping, inventory system.

Topic
Agricultural structures and environmental engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/CgtmQMGjT24Y


Primary Antibody of Aeromonas salmonicida in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) for Detecting Furunculosis
Kurniasih

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Corresponding Author
Kurniasih Kurniasih

Institutions
Gadjah Mada University

Abstract
Tilapia aquaculture is well developed in Indonesia, however, the main problem which may cause loss is bacterial infection, mainly Aeromonas salmonicida which may result in furunculosis. Identification of furunculosis takes a long time and it is often confused by A. hydrophila infection. The aim of study was to produce primary antibody from local isolate of A. salmonicida, for detecting furunculosis based on immunohistochemistry staining. Local isolate of A. salmonicida was attenuated using formaldehyde to obtain the O antigen and further intraperitoneally injected to the rabbits with weekly increased dosage which were 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mL. The immunization was done in 4 weeks, and at the 5th week the blood sample was collected to make the primary antibody for immunohistochemistry procedure. The result showed that the antigen of A. salmonicida was found in the liver, kidney, spleen, gill, and intestine since the third until tenth day post infection. The reaction of antigen and antibody appeared as brown colour within the cytoplasm of those organs. The conclusion is the primary antibody of A. salmonicida is very sensitive for immunohistochemistry.

Keywords
Aeromonas salmonicida; immunohistochemistry; tilapia; primary antibody

Topic
Agricultural structures and environmental engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/8FfJntHGTzKr


Reengineering Process of Rice Supply Chain Management through Implementing Agricultural Mechanization System, Study Case: Yogyakarta Special Region and Province of Central Java
Lilik Sutiarso (a*), Joko Nugroho (a), Rizki Maftukhah (a), Jamhari (b), Lestari Rahayu (b)

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Corresponding Author
Lilik Sutiarso

Institutions
a) Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada
* lilik-soetiarso[at]ugm.ac.id
b) Department of Agricultural Socio-Economics Universitas Gadjah Mada

Abstract
Rice problems in Indonesia related to handling yields to consumers often lead to inequality of results for farmers as the main tier in rice production. The length of the supply chain, poor inventory management and the absence of interrelated supply-demand management make supply chain actors not integrated and inefficient. This study aim is to conduct re-engineering process of the supply chain and distribution of rice in the Province of Central Java and the Special Region of Yogyakarta in order to provide an overview and policy recommendations as an effort to increase farmers income and reasonable price fixing of rice for consumers. The technique of data collection is carried out by conducting surveys, interviews, observation and documentation. The results showed that from the five regency sampled, Demak, Sukoharjo, Klaten, Bantul and Sleman, they had the same supply chain map, which included farmers; collectors / grinders / traders; small retailer; big retailer. Regarding the rice supply chain that is symmetrical, it is not necessary to cut off the chain of tier but by applying a more balanced business pattern by promoting symmetrical information patterns. The impact of using mechanization was increasing production and income of farmers in Klaten, Sleman, Demak, Sukoharjo and Bantul, has a positive impact to reducing time for operations in the field and decreasing operational costs.

Keywords
Reengineering Process; Supply Chain Management; Rice

Topic
Agricultural structures and environmental engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/qbwENjYzG4CU


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