Culinary herbs : Potential therapeutic compounds 1Dr. Jegathambigai Rameshwar Naidu1 , Dr. Sasidharan Sreenivasan2 , 1Prof Amaluddin Ahmad, 1Dr. Roy Rillero Marzo
Asia Metropolitan University, Malaysia.
Over the past few centuries, Scientists have focused on drug development from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. Pharmaceutical potential of the culinary herbs, Centella asiatica, Ocimum basilcum, Cymbopogan citratus, Allium Cepa L and Mentha spicata were assessed by studying their antioxidant / cytotoxic / anti-angiogenic and antithrombotic properties. Free radical scavenging potential exihibited by the tested plant extracts is related to mechanisms of cytotoxicity, angiogenesis and thrombo-embolism. Antithrombotic activity testing demonstrated the inhibitory potential of the extracts to thrombin assay and thrombin-induced clotting time assay. Antiplatelet activity as determined by the platelet aggregation assay measured the ability of the tested plant extracts for the inhibition of platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma of (PRP). Cytotoxicity index (CI)determined by performing the MTT assay revealed that there was a significant inhibition of percentage cell viability of HL60 cell lines treated with the plant extracts. The CI was found to increase with increasing dose tested in the plant extracts. The morphology of the HL60 cells treated with Ocimum basilica, Mentha spicata extracts at high concentrations (200, 100 µg/ml) indicated cell shrinkage and clumping, signs of apoptosis and inhibited cell growth. Ex vivo rat aortic assay were performed to evaluate the anti-angiogenic activity by determined the inhibitory effect on micro-vessel sprouting of the rat aortic ring. Hence the investigated plant extracts were able to suppress angiogenesis by markedly inhibiting the vessel growth sprouting from the rat aortic explants. Mentha spicata extract were found to inhibit the HUVEC cell growth stating the possible antiangio genic mechanism by the mode of inhibition of epithelial cell growth. The results clearly indicates the possibility of the plant extracts investigated, for further development to chemotherapeutic / anti-angiogenic and anti-thrombotic agents and warrants further studies in future.