Acceptance of Electric Vehicle in Indonesia: Case Study in Bandung Eko Agus Prasetio (a), Prawira Fajarindra Belgiawan (a), Lely Trianti Anggarini (a*), Safrani Nurfatiasari (a), Dita Novizayanti (b)
a) School of Business and Management, Bandung Institute of Technology Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia *lely_trianti[at]sbm-itb.ac.id
b) National Center of Sustainable Transportation Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
This research aims to comprehend how public electric vehicle is preferred among other transportation modes namely shuttle bus, public bus, private motorcycle, and private car, specifically for long-range (approximately more than 20 km) daily commuting. Data collection process is conducted using questionnaire-based survey that is divided into three sections: Stated-Preferences (SP), Sociodemographics (SD) characteristics, and statement evaluations (SE). SP includes eight sets of selected labelled experiments with several attributes: travel time, travel cost, waiting time, access and egress time, access and egress cost, frequency, congestion time, and parking cost. Information on age, gender, and income are compiled in the SD section. The experimental design is developed using NGENE with a D-efficient design. We manage to gather 333 respondents and each of them corresponds to the 8 scenarios presented. Thus, a total of 2664 observations are acquired for further analysis in the light of travel mode choice behavior. An open source Python package, Biogeme, is used for the choice modeling analysis. Biogeme is designed for the maximum likelihood estimation of parametric models in general, with a special emphasis on discrete choice models. In this study, multinomial logit (MNL) modeling techniques is used as it is common in transportation research. There are 39 parameters (K= 39) used in the study comprised of four alternative specific constant (ASC): ASC1 for public electric vehicle (PEV), ASC3 for public bus (PB), ASC4 for private motorcycle (PM), and ASC5 for private car (PC); eight coefficients (beta) for each PB, PEV, and SH comprised of access and egress (AE), access and egress cost (AEcost), congestion time (Ctime), frequency (Freq), travel time (Ttime), waiting time (Wtime), emission level, and vibration and noise level; five coefficients for each PM and PC comprised of congestion time, parking cost, travel time, emission, and vibration; and a generic coefficient of travel cost. This result indicates that Indonesian commuters are sensitive to congestion time, travel time, and travel cost in all transportation modes except public bus; and to vibration and noise level only in public transportations. Emission level in public transportations is more concerning for the commuters that in private transportations. Frequency of public transportations are unimportant and parking cost only matters to private car users.
Keywords: Electric vehicles; transportation; choice model; SP survey; Indonesia