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The 6th International Conference on Electric Vehicular Technology (ICEVT 2019)

Event starts on 2019.11.18 for 4 days in Bali

http://icevt.org | https://ifory.id/conf-abstract/3K72gYxJn

Page 1 (data 1 to 30 of 93) | Displayed ini 30 data/page

A reflection on using product diffusion models in forecasting the electric vehicle market
Simon Shepherd

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Corresponding Author
Simon Shepherd

Institutions
Institute for Transport Studies
University of Leeds
UK

Abstract
In this paper I reflect on the use of product diffusion models using a system dynamics approach in the forecasting of transition pathways around the uptake of electric vehicles. I look back at how realistic my previous work was for the UK given we now have 8 years of sales data. I find that the previous forecast was overly optimistic and after re-validating the model the forecast is for a weal uptake at best. I consider the different elements of uncertainty in the used models. There are uncertainties in terms of input parameters based on validation with limited sales data, uncertainty from assumed behavioural parameters within the product diffusion process and the choice model. Structural uncertainty in terms of assumed availability and finally structural uncertainty in terms of delay structure assumed in the typical models used to model fleet turn-over is considered. This last structure has important implications on the most optimistic transitions often in the minds of key stakeholders and policy makers. Finally I look at the use of such a model in the electric scooter market for Bandung.

Keywords
system dynamics, transition pathways, modelling, policy

Topic
EV Socio-Economical Impact

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/merJYQXACLyD


A Review On DC–DC Converter Topologies and Controls for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications
1Pronay Kumar Chakrobarty, Student Member, IEEE, 2Shruthi Mukundan, Student Member, IEEE, 3Eshaan Ghosh, Senior Member, IEEE, and 4Narayan C. Kar, Senior Member, IEEE

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Corresponding Author
Pronay Kumar Chakrobarty

Institutions
Centre for Hybrid Automotive Research and Green Energy, University of Windsor, ON, Canada – N9B 3P4

Abstract
Fuel cells are being widely implemented as energy sources for various applications including hybrid electric vehicles as they offer lower emissions and improve the environmental conditions. However, due to their low output voltage and wide variation from no-load to full-load, a DC-DC converter is required to interface the fuel cell with the load. The major challenges associated with such DC-DC converters are to obtain high voltage gains and high efficiency for the overall performance of the fuel cell hybrid vehicle system. Therefore, it is of primary importance to select a suitable converter topology and flexible controls system which can capable of satisfying all the performance requirements. Thus, this paper presents a comparative review of DC –DC converters in power conditioning for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles with discussion on recent trends in converter control strategies.

Keywords
Converter, Control strategy, Electric Vehicle, Fuel Cell, Topology

Topic
Power Electronics and Its Applications

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/r3Ptca4WGBUT


A simple method to improve accuration of rotor position sensing for PMSM motor with hall effect position sensor using state observer
LEN

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Corresponding Author
LEN Len

Institutions
LEN

Abstract
Field Oriented Control in PMSM needs accurate angle information to generate maximum torque and less ripple. However, many economic PMSM motors are only equipped with hall sensors which have up to 60 degrees error. In some applications where continuous torque is necessary, angle error will lead the motor into stall condition or even stopped rotating. A state observer is proposed to improve FOC control performance by reducing angle error from Hall sensors. Current and voltage input of the motor is used as information to predict the rotor angle. Computer simulation has been done using PSIM(TM), and the simulation result shows a significant improvement on the performance indicated by less torque ripple.

Keywords
Field Oriented Control

Topic
Control System

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/brBKzn9v4hfw


Acceptance of Electric Vehicle in Indonesia: Case Study in Bandung
Eko Agus Prasetio (a), Prawira Fajarindra Belgiawan (a), Lely Trianti Anggarini (a*), Safrani Nurfatiasari (a), Dita Novizayanti (b)

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Corresponding Author
Lely Trianti Anggarini

Institutions
a) School of Business and Management, Bandung Institute of Technology
Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
*lely_trianti[at]sbm-itb.ac.id

b) National Center of Sustainable Transportation Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology
Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia

Abstract
This research aims to comprehend how public electric vehicle is preferred among other transportation modes namely shuttle bus, public bus, private motorcycle, and private car, specifically for long-range (approximately more than 20 km) daily commuting. Data collection process is conducted using questionnaire-based survey that is divided into three sections: Stated-Preferences (SP), Sociodemographics (SD) characteristics, and statement evaluations (SE). SP includes eight sets of selected labelled experiments with several attributes: travel time, travel cost, waiting time, access and egress time, access and egress cost, frequency, congestion time, and parking cost. Information on age, gender, and income are compiled in the SD section. The experimental design is developed using NGENE with a D-efficient design. We manage to gather 333 respondents and each of them corresponds to the 8 scenarios presented. Thus, a total of 2664 observations are acquired for further analysis in the light of travel mode choice behavior. An open source Python package, Biogeme, is used for the choice modeling analysis. Biogeme is designed for the maximum likelihood estimation of parametric models in general, with a special emphasis on discrete choice models. In this study, multinomial logit (MNL) modeling techniques is used as it is common in transportation research. There are 39 parameters (K= 39) used in the study comprised of four alternative specific constant (ASC): ASC1 for public electric vehicle (PEV), ASC3 for public bus (PB), ASC4 for private motorcycle (PM), and ASC5 for private car (PC); eight coefficients (beta) for each PB, PEV, and SH comprised of access and egress (AE), access and egress cost (AEcost), congestion time (Ctime), frequency (Freq), travel time (Ttime), waiting time (Wtime), emission level, and vibration and noise level; five coefficients for each PM and PC comprised of congestion time, parking cost, travel time, emission, and vibration; and a generic coefficient of travel cost. This result indicates that Indonesian commuters are sensitive to congestion time, travel time, and travel cost in all transportation modes except public bus; and to vibration and noise level only in public transportations. Emission level in public transportations is more concerning for the commuters that in private transportations. Frequency of public transportations are unimportant and parking cost only matters to private car users.

Keywords
Electric vehicles; transportation; choice model; SP survey; Indonesia

Topic
EV Socio-Economical Impact

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/LeDMr6bgcfU4


Added Mass and Drag Prediction Using CFD Fluent Simulation for an Autonomous Barge Parameters
Numan Amri Maliky, Mochamad Teguh Subarkah, Ir. Syarif Hidayat, M.T, PhD

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Corresponding Author
Numan Amri Maliky

Institutions
Institut Teknologi Bandung

Abstract
While a barge is operating, there are hydrodynamics forces influencing motion of the barge. To create an autonomous barge, there are some parameters that must be obtained. There are many methods to generate data for these parameters, such as experiment and computational simulation. CFD method is the best way to obtain the parameters. Besides having a high level of accuracy, CFD method doesn-t require expensive cost compared to the experimental method.

Keywords
added mass, drag, control, autonomous, hydrodynamic, computational fluid dynamics, simulation, barge

Topic
Control System

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/bqVBH4hfN2Qy


An Input-to-State Stable Implementation of Event-Triggered CBTC
Tua A. Tamba and Yul Y. Nazaruddin

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Corresponding Author
Tua A. Tamba

Institutions
National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology (NCSTT), Bandung, Indonesia

Abstract
CBTC (communication-based train control) is a new train control technology which aims at managing a platoon of several trains to move simultaneously on a particular train segment through precise maintenance of a predetermined inter-train safe distance. The success of the CBTC technology implementation thus relies strongly on the availability of dedicated real-time communication systems which can accommodate the continuous data/information exchange/transmission among neighboring trains. With an objective of reducing both the computational effort and the communication network loads/traffics in such a CBTC implementation, this paper proposes a Lyapunov-based event-triggered control scheduling approach which can guarantee the input-to-state stability property of the closed loop CBTC system.

Keywords
CBTC, event triggering, input-to-state stability, Lyapunov method

Topic
Control System

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/7rZFjuXaD4YH


Analysis of daily driving and its impact to the fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
Ainul Ghurri (a*), I Made Gatot Karohika (a), I Ketut Gede Sugita (a), I Made Widiyarta (a), I Nyoman Gde Antara (a)

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Corresponding Author
Ainul Ghurri

Institutions
(a) Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Udayana
Bali, Indonesia
*a_ghurri[at]unud.ac.id

Abstract
Plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) is one of promising vehicle type to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The potential of PHEV is highly dependent on the mileage need of the vehicle, the availability of charging station, the capability of the electrical source, and the commitment of the driver itself to do the charging. The present study is aimed to analyze some interdependent factors in actual driving of PHEV to its fuel economy. The analysis was conducted by using the actual data from daily driving of six drivers. The PHEV is gasoline engine equipped with 8.8 kWh battery. All drivers have access to the charging station at workplace with their own daily mileage from home to workplace. The availability of charging station in drivers- home was not same due to the difference in capacity of electrical source. The PHEVs were provided with data acquisition covering mileage, fuel consumption, fuel economy, engine mode duration, EV mode duration, etc. The results showed that the fuel economy of the PHEV varied highly depended on the combination of factors faced by each driver. The access to the charging facility and the time availability to do charging impacted to the daily charging frequency, then affected the EV driving ratio. The daily mileage also strongly affected the EV driving ratio and then impacting the fuel economy of the PHEV. The charging frequency of the six drivers varied from 0.6 times/day to 2 times/day. Houses with electrical capacity 3500 W is capable to charge the PHEV at 8A current in 5 hours until full charged. The charging facility in workplace was able to charge at 16A current in 2 hours until full charged. The fuel economy of the PHEV varied from 29.2 km/l until almost 100 km/l. The fuel economy at 29.2 km/l was not so different with the fuel economy of HEV without plug-in feature, so the large capacity of the battery was not beneficial. The results underlined that the charging facility and the electrical source capacity together with the recommended driving distance of the vehicle were the very important consideration to decide the battery capacity installed to the PHEV.

Keywords
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, fuel economy, EV driving, battery charging

Topic
EV Socio-Economical Impact

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/c8Y7TnBKahEC


Analysis of The Relationship Between Accident, Speed And Volume (Case Study: Inter-City Highway Jasa Marga Surabaya-Gempol)
Anton Budiharjo, Alfan Baharuddin, Fitria Nur Aeni

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Corresponding Author
Fitria Nur Aeni

Institutions
Polytechnic of Road Transportation Safety

Abstract
Theoretically there is a fundamental relationship between the number of accidents, speed and volume. Mathematical and graphic relationships can be used to understand those traffic behaviour. This model is expected to provide estimates or predictions of traffic accident figures as a basis to improve traffic safety on Surabaya-Gempol toll road. Data processing is performed using the non-linear Poisson regression method because accident rates are discrete and cannot be negative. From the results it is known that in Waru-Sidoarjo segment, the lower the speed, the denser the traffic volume and accidents will remain constant. In the Sidoarjo-Porong section, the denser the traffic volume, the speed will decrease and the accident rate will increase. In Kejapanan-Gempol section, the denser the traffic volume, the less accidents will occur.

Keywords
Accident, speed and volume relationship, Poisson Regression, Accident relationship models

Topic
Transportation Safety

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/PU7nm8rwCpWB


Analysis on fuel economy and CO2 emission of gasoline engine and hybrid electric vehicles
I Made Widiyarta*, Ainul Ghurri, I Made Gatot Karohika, I Nyoman Gde Antara, I Ketut Gede Sugita

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Corresponding Author
I Made Widiyarta

Institutions
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Udayana, Bali, Indonesia
*m.widiyarta[at]unud.ac.id

Abstract
Private passenger vehicles highly contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2). Increasing the fuel economy of private vehicles have been the main goal for reducing fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions. The increase in fuel economy of commercial vehicles has been the main objective to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. One of technology is hybrid electric vehicles. This paper analyses the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) and compared to the conventional gasoline engine vehicles. The fuel economy data were recorded from 2 gasoline engine cars, 2 hybrid electric cars, and 2 plug-in hybrid electric cars; during six weeks daily driving with mileage 25-50 km/day each car. Those six cars were driven by six different drivers. The results show that the fuel economy of the HEV is in the range of 22.4 to 13.1 km/l, for the PHEV, the fuel economy is in the range of 55.4 to 88 km/l, and in the range of 10.1 to 12.9 km/l for the gasoline engine cars. The PHEV had the highest fuel economy and very wide variation in fuel economy. This was affected by the availability of the charging facility, the easiness to access the charging station, and the commitment of the driver itself to do charging the car. Fuel economy of the HEVs was the most consistent in any situation of driving. As for the gasoline engine cars, the traffic condition has a quite big impact on the fuel economy. The estimated fuel consumption reductions for the HEVs and PHEVs were about 56% and in the range of 60% to 85%, respectively. The estimated CO2 reductions were about 48% for the HEVs and about 55% for the PHEVs.

Keywords
Hybrid electric vehicles, fuel consumption, CO2 emission reduction

Topic
EV Socio-Economical Impact

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/WQ3pnFu6fcdK


Application of Intelligent Transportation System to Improve Transportation Safety
Puguh Budi Prakoso

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Corresponding Author
Puguh Budi Prakoso

Institutions
ULM

Abstract
Advances in computer, communication and information technologies enable to store, process and transfer large data very quickly. This technology-based automation system also makes it possible to carry out processes or procedures by minimizing human involvement to avoid the risk of human errors. What is more, these processes and procedures can be performed now in real-time. Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is an application of computing, communication and information technology to manage transportation effectively. ITS architecture involves sensor and detector technology, big database and data processing, real-time transport analysis/modelling/computing, AI, control systems, automation, navigation as well as data transfer and communication systems. ITS which is designed with a minimum errors and is able to make predictions can be used for preventive measures and safety improvement. The applications of ITS to enhance transportation safety, for instance public travel safety, increasing safety for vulnerable road users, smart intersections, traffic surveillance, incident detection, emergency notifications, etc. This presentation discusses the recent ITS implementations in enhancing transportation safety, some evidence of the effectiveness of ITS applications in various countries, ITS applications in Indonesia as well as the future challenges of ITS in following developments and trends in future mobility, especially in facing the industrial era 4.0.

Keywords
ITS, transportation safety, future mobility, industry 4.0

Topic
Transportation Safety

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/Zr9JKY6gejAH


Automotive Real-Time Operating System in Vehicular Technology Progress Review
Wirawan Lingga, Bentang Arief Budiman, Poetro Sambegoro

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Corresponding Author
Wirawan Lingga

Institutions
ITB

Abstract
Degrees of human intervention for vehicular technology have been decreasing in the past few years. Automated cars and even autonomous ones have been appearing in successive events. One aspect to note is that automated systems for automobiles are believed to follow the technology for electric vehicles. It will then require a real-time control system to guarantee timely responses and task priority setups for internal and external events of real-time systems, especially for the migration of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles to electric cars

Keywords
Automated, electric vehicles, real-time, timely responses, task priority setups

Topic
EV System and Integration

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/38DHMCYgUWqv


Axial Unipolar of Eddy Current Brake Pole Characterization
Suwolo (a); Waloyo, H.T. (a, b*); Ubaidillah(a,c); Nizam, M. (c,d)

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Corresponding Author
Hery Tri Waloyo

Institutions
a) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta
b) Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Muhmmadiyah Kalimantan Timur
c) National Center of Sustainable of Transportation Technologi (NCSTT)
d)Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta

Abstract
Vehicle generally require an optimal braking system, eddy current brake (ECB) can be used as an alternative to the conventional braking system. Unipolar Axial ECB was discussed in this paper. Performance of ECB is influenced by several factors, like the distance of the pole location to center of the shaft. The pole location determine the braking torque because the change of braking force arm. In this paper, finite element method (FEM) based modeling are used to describe the eddy current change. Size and design of ECB are based on a conventional hydraulic braking system. The standard pole location will be similar to the brake pad on a conventional hydraulic braking system. The pole location will be varied to profile the changes in braking torque. From data, it was found that the pole location near than standard tends to have good braking torque at high speeds. In reverse, at low speeds it has lower braking torque compared to standard pole location. Then at the pole location far than standard give the resulting braking torque is lower in both while low speed and high speed. It is because the eddy current turn path area become narrow on the rotor when the pole location far from standard.

Keywords
Braking; Torque; Design; Eddy Current

Topic
EV System and Integration

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/CJbfQw73UanX


Battery Discharging Temperature Prediction Using Holt-s Double Exponential Smoothing
Christio Revano Mege(1), Irsyad Nashirul Haq(2),Edi Leksono(3), F.X. Nugroho Soelami(4)

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Corresponding Author
Irsyad Nashirul Haq

Institutions
(1)Graduate Student at Engineering Physics
Institut Teknologi Bandung
Bandung, Indonesia

(2,3,4) Department of Engineering Physics
Institut Teknologi Bandung
Bandung, Indonesia

(2)National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology, Bandung, Indonesia

(1)christio.mege[at]gmail.com,
(2)irsyad[at]tf.itb.ac.id
(3)edi[at]tf.itb.ac.id,
(4)nugroho[at]tf.itb.ac.id,

Abstract
In this research the effect of temperature rising on battery performances such as depth of discharge and electricity generation efficiency had been conducted. After that temperature data acquired from data acquisition process is used as training data and test data to predict temperature using Holt-s Double Exponential Smoothing. The results show that at 0.7C, cells temperatures inside module reached 35.40C, rising about 4.90C. The temperature rising is greater than single cell that rose 30C to 29.70C. Then at 1.4C the module temperature reached 38.60C rising about 8.30C. Single cell temperature at 1.4C reached 35.70C, rising 9.40C. At 2.1C, single cell reached 45.10C with temperature increasing of 18.50C. Module temperature at 2.1C reached 480C with 190C increasing. Efficiency of electricity generation of single cell at 0.7C is 92.58%. The efficiency reduced to 84.48% at 1.4C rate. Then at 2.1C rate, single cell only capable of generated energy about 23.3Wh with 76.82% efficiency. Module at 0.7C has electricity generation efficiency of 91.58%. At 1.4C, the efficiency reduced to 83.38%. At 2.1C rate, the efficiency was getting smaller to 72.9%. Predictions conducted show that Holt-s Double Exponential Smoothing can predict the temperature rising in single cell. In module temperature predictions, training data was taken from one cell only to predict the rest of the cells. At 0.7C, Holt methods can predict six out of eight cells well. Five out of eight cells could also be predicted well at 1.4C. However at 2.1C, just four cells could be predicted well. The predictions accuracy of Holt-s Double Exponential Smoothing decreased when the temperature uniformity in module decreased as the C-rate increased

Keywords
Battery Performances, Temperature Predictions, Holt-s Double Exponential Smoothing, Discharging Process

Topic
Cooling System for Electric Vehicle

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/demMZ3qNgKWy


Battery Temperature Rate of Change Estimation by Using Machine Learning
Engly Heryanto Ndaomanu(1), Irsyad Nashirul Haq(2),Edi Leksono(3), Brian Yuliarto(4)

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Corresponding Author
Irsyad Nashirul Haq

Institutions
(1)Graduate Student at Engineering Physics
Institut Teknologi Bandung
Bandung, Indonesia

(2,3,4) Department of Engineering Physics
Institut Teknologi Bandung
Bandung, Indonesia

(2)National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology, Bandung, Indonesia

(1)engly.nd[at]gmail.com,
(2)irsyad[at]tf.itb.ac.id
(3)edi[at]tf.itb.ac.id,
(4)brian[at]tf.itb.ac.id,

Abstract
In this research, the process of monitoring of the electric variable on a 14 Ah prismatic LiFePO4 battery has been carried out. The variables monitored include electric current, voltage, energy and internal resistance to be analysed for its effect on the temperature variable on the battery. An analysis of the relationship between the increase of temperature and the efficiency of energy has also been done. This process succeeded in getting the electrothermal value or heat arising from the electric variable in the battery. Electro thermal in the battery cell obtained the highest value 19.5 KJ and in the module obtained a value of 25.04 KJ, while the rate of electrothermal addition varies from 2.5 J/s to 22.5 J/s in a single cell and 20 J/s to 180 J/s on the battery module. Monitoring has also been implemented in the process of releasing battery energy both cells and modules. Monitoring of variable voltage, current, battery capacity, time and temperature has been done thus found that T of the battery was 20 0C when emptied with a discharge rate of 2.1 C and the temperature change of at least 3 0C at 0.7 C. While at 1.4 C, the temperature rises around 12 0C. In the battery module, the temperature rises around 6 0C when the battery module emptied at a rate of discharge 0.7 C, 15 0C at 1.4 C and around 20 0C at 2.1C. Machine learning can be used to estimate the increase of the temperature in a battery based on changes in voltage and electric current. This is done in order to determine the maximum electric current that can be supplied to the battery thus the thermal conditions of the battery can be maintained. The accuracy of estimating temperature value by using SVR on a single battery cell was 91.2% with RMSE was 1.107 0C while for the modules obtained 82.37% with RMSE is 1.18 0C. The accuracy value used RF for single cells was 97.28% with RMSE was 0 .625 0C and 98% with RMSE was 0.3 0C for battery modules.

Keywords
Prismatic LiFePO4 Battery, Support Vector Machine, Electrothermal, Random Forest

Topic
Cooling System for Electric Vehicle

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/dpyUcRXZY3E7


Battery Thermal Characteristics Estimation Using Finite Element Method
Fadhlin Nugraha Rismi(1), Irsyad Nashirul Haq(2),Edi Leksono(3), F.X. Nugroho Soelami(4)

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Corresponding Author
Irsyad Nashirul Haq

Institutions
(1)Graduate Students, Department of Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung
(2,3,4) Department of Engineering Physics,
Institut Teknologi Bandung
(2) National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology, Bandung, Indonesia

(1)fadhlin_nugraha[at]yahoo.com,
(2)irsyad[at]tf.itb.ac.id
(3)edi[at]tf.itb.ac.id,
(4)nugroho[at]tf.itb.ac.id

Abstract
In this study, an investigation of thermal characteristics was carried out at two stages namely, the experimental stage and the simulation and modeling stage. In the experimental stage, the battery consists of 1 cell with a capacity of 14Ah. At the experimental stage, the battery under investigation works at the discharge currents C1, C2, and C4, with natural convection studies in insulation and non-insulation systems. The assumptions used in this study are the battery used have experienced more than 10 cycles, the heat radiation from the battery is ignored, the parameters and thermal constants are considered constant. The ambient temperature range for operation is at 24oC – 28,5oC. Experimental results show that the battery system under insulation conditions has more stable thermal characteristics compared to non-insulation systems. As well as the results of the simulation stage 1 battery cell under conditions of insulation and non-insulation. In addition, estiomation were also made for the 10 battery insulation system. The temperature rise characteristic shows an exponential graph on all simulations performed. By evaluating the measurement values in the experimental and simulation stages, the results of the non-insulation conditions show an error for the C1 discharging current of 1,77%, C2 of 1,97%, and C4 of 0,38%. The results of insulation conditions show an error for the C1 emptying current of 1,10%, C2 of 0,53%, and C4 of 0,05%.

Keywords
Thermal Characteristics Estimation, Battery Module, Finite Element Method, Temperature Distribution

Topic
Cooling System for Electric Vehicle

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/8tyQhfd7MEac


Channel Measurement based Ray-Tracing Analysis for High Speed Railway Scenario at 800MHz
Irsyad Ridwany (a*), Adit Kurniawan (a)(b), Tutun Juhana (a)(b), Bo Ai (c), Longhe Wang(c)

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Corresponding Author
irsyad ridwany

Institutions
a) School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Bandung Institute of Technology
St. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
*irsyadridwany[at]icloud.com
b)National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology (NCSTT), Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia
c) State Key Laboratory of Rail Traffic Control and Safety, Beijing Jiaotong University, 100044, Beijing, China

Abstract
The analysis of channel measurement based ray-tracing (RT) simulation nowadays is considered as one of the most effective in solving traffic railway communication. In order to handle the increasing capacity demand for higher transmission capabilities, the railway communication system should be support by high data rate connectivity and feasible in many areas included urban area. The channel characteristic for railway scenario are explored by RT analysis method in the simulation at 800 MHz with 20 MHz bandwidth. Also most straightforward way to increase capacity is to add more bandwidth. The scenario for high speed railway (HSR) are modeling in urban area. However due to channel information parameters are extracted and incorporated into a 3GPP-like random channel generator. Well to analysis the channel measurement depend on ray-tracing for HSR can be adjusted with the channel information on the area.

Keywords
Channel measurement, ray tracing, bandwidth, and modeling

Topic
Transportation Safety

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/4LBrXGWwuYAg


Chaotic Behavior of Battery State of Health
Steven Bandong, Endra Joelianto, Muhammad Ihsan

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Corresponding Author
Endra Joelianto

Institutions
Institut Teknologi Bandung

Abstract
Batteries have been widely used for energy storage in various fields. Renewable energy systems, such as solar cells and wind turbines, produce energy depending on the weather. Because of that, batteries are needed in these fields to ensure energy availability. Electric vehicles also rely on batteries for energy storages. Therefore, the failure of battery management can result in large losses in various aspects. To prevent this, a number of studies on State of Health (SoH) of battery have been carried out. Prediction and estimation of SoH have been carried out using several methods such as SVM, deep learning, random forest and others. In many cases, these methods are applied by assuming that the change in SoH is a linear or non-linear phenomenon. However, in this paper, it is found that SoH exhibits chaotic behavior. Several well known methods to illustrate the Mackey-Glass Equation method and Lyapunov Exponent are considered to identify the chaotic nature of SoH. The obtained results can provide a new understanding of SoH behaviors on batteries, especially for the development of battery management system, control and safety system.

Keywords
SoH, Chaotic behavior, Battery, Mackey-Glass Equation, Lyapunov Exponent

Topic
Battery Technology and Management System

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/VgUv4PjZmEBq


Comparison of ANN and Multinomial Logit for Prediction of Mode Choice between Online Transportations and Private Vehicles
Puguh Budi Prakoso, Yuslena Sari, Iphan Fitrian Radam, Najmi Fahrina

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Corresponding Author
Puguh Budi Prakoso

Institutions
Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Indonesia
National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology, Indonesia
e-mail: puguh.prakoso[at]ulm.ac.id, ifradam[at]ulm.ac.id, najmi.fahrina[at]gmail.com

Abstract
The presence of online transportation modes is a manifestation of the rapid development of information technology, especially smartphone and apps technology. Because of the critical issues of safety, service quality assurance and effectiveness of load factor to its capacity, online transportations in Indonesia cannot be classified and regulated as public transportation. The main function of online transportation is actually as a short distance feeder to public transportation. Unfortunately, because the public transportation is not adequate, so the online transportation functions slowly become informal public transportation mode. This in the future can cause problems in a city, especially when the increasing number of online transportations will rise the vehicle traffic together with private vehicles. To understand and prevent this problem becoming bigger in the near future, the mode choice between private vehicles and online transportations requires to be studied first. The purpose of this research is to obtain a reliable model of modal choice between private vehicles and online transportation by comparing the multinomial logit (MNL) probability method with the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), to study the accuracy of the performance of the two models for the mode selection between private vehicles and online transportation, and to evaluate the socio-economic factors underlying the mode choice between private vehicles and online transportation in the city areas of Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru.

Keywords
mode choice, multinomial logit probability method, ANN, online transportation

Topic
EV Socio-Economical Impact

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/cM2wVQmhey9k


Comparison Power Consumtion 125 Watts Pump by Using AC and DC Based on Solar Energy
S. Sulistyo, Sri Nugroho, Ade Mukti Wibowo

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Corresponding Author
Sulistyo Sulistyo

Institutions
Mechanical Engineering Department Diponegoro University, Tembalang Semarang
NCSTT, ITB Bandung

Abstract
The development of photovoltaics has shown the maturity of technology. The application can already be used as a source of electrical energy and is an environmentally friendly source of electrical energy. The use of PV technology in Indonesia has developed well for the generation of electricity for companies or household units as an alternative energy source. Currently, Indonesia has begun to develop electric car transportation by using batteries, so that it was need inverter equipment which change a direct current to the alternating current. This paper discusses the comparison of power consumtion 125 watts pump by using alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) based on solar energy using photovoltaic (PV). The type PV cell uses a 100-watt peak solar cell type silicon mounted on a portable basis and paralel connected. The PV is installed at Semarang region which connected by battery. The type battery is 100 AH, 12 V. The battery was connected to motor pump of 125 watts. There are two motors type which has specification as DC motor and AC motor. The DC motor should be connected by DC-DC converter before DC motor pump to increase the requirement voltage of motor pump while AC motor should be provided by inverter DC to AC. The pump was connected by piping system which suction pipe use a diamter of 32 mm and discharge pipe of 20 mm. The total head for both experiment are 4 m. The speed of motor was measured as in motor specification. The operating of PV was at 08.00 am – 16.00 pm. The result of the power consumtion of the DC motor was more effiency tha by using AC motor. The operation of the battery using DC motor is about two times longer than AC motor.

Keywords
Solar Energy, Photovoltaics, Pump

Topic
Electric System, Drives, Motors, Machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/JtAEc9U2xFBu


Design and Prototyping of an Electric City Car for Two Passengers
Munadi, Ismoyo Haryanto, Mochammad Ariyanto, Joga Dharma Setiawan, Urip Kurniawan, M. Beny Dwifa

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Corresponding Author
M Munadi

Institutions
Universitas Diponegoro

Abstract
Land transport has contributed to air pollution that occurs. This forced the car manufacturers to improve the quality of their products in order to pass the exhaust emissions standards. In addition to exhaust emissions, the limited source of vehicle fuel energy is the reason some researchers develop electric cars. This article conveys the results of research on prototyping an electric city car for two passengers with wheel hub motor type configuration as our research pilot project related to electric cars. The data acquisition aids made are equipped with a LabVIEW-based human-machine interface that makes it easier for researchers to monitor the consumption of electric cars in real-time. Based on the design process, manufacture, until testing, the value of drag coefficient is 0.42; testing for curb-weight is 510 kg; maximum speed is 75.3 km/hour; the maximum power is 3.03 kW at 602 rpm wheel speed; and the maximum torque is 50.8 Nm at a wheel speed of 516 rpm. For the state of charge, this prototype of an electric city car is capable of traveling up to 42.4 km from 100% to 20% SOC.

Keywords
electric city car, wheel hub motor, human machine interface

Topic
EV Body, Chassis, and Platform

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/JQwAzuG2YNDp


DESIGN CLOSE-LOOP CONTROL OF BLDC MOTOR SPEED USING FUZZY LOGIC METHOD IN SOLAR POWER WATER PUMP WITH MATLAB/SIMULINK
Chico Hermanu Brillianto Apribowo, Hari Maghfiroh, Arifian Tri Laksita

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Corresponding Author
Chico Hermanu Brillianto Apribowo

Institutions
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia

National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology
Bandung, Indonesia

Abstract
In this research, the design of close loop BLDC motor speed control was designed with several simulation test conditions and also discuss the differences of boost converter with Fuzzy control and boost converter without Fuzzy control. The BLDC motor specifications used in this research are 3 phase, constant voltage is 80 V_peak L-L / krpm and the moment of inertia is 0.000553 J (kgm2). The specifications of the solar were Canadian CS5T 130M with a maximum power = 129W. The test results on the boost converter without using Fuzzy controls have fluctuating voltages, and the output voltage is ± 34 V. Whereas when using Fuzzy controls, the output voltage is stable and the voltage is ± 135 V. In simulation conditions 5 with Fuzzy control circuits have THD values amounting to 1.72%, which corresponds to the standards specified by IEEE for voltages below 1 kV = <5%. The simulation test results with several conditions have made a difference in the results of the motor speed response. Based on the results of the simulation test, it is known that the speed control with the Fuzzy control circuit has better results compared to the open loop circuit and PID control.

Keywords
Close Loop Control, BLDC Motor, Boost Converter, Fuzzy Control, THD

Topic
Power Electronics and Its Applications

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/yu9a2mZCXMLe


Design of Battery Management System (BMS) for Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) Battery
Muhammad Nizam, Hari Maghfiroh, Rizal A. Risadi, Kirana D. U. Kusumaputri

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Nizam

Institutions
UNS

Abstract
Lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP) is one of the longest lifetime lithium ion batteries. However, its application in the long-term needs requires specific conditions to be operated normally and avoid damage. Battery management system (BMS) is the solution to this problem. The BMS designed in this study has three key features: monitoring, balancing, and protection. Arduino Nano as a microcontroller gives an advantage that is programable so that it can be used for all types of LFP batteries, without the need to re-create BMS. The results of this study indicate the ability of BMS in maintaining voltage values with passive balancing at 3.6V, disconnecting the input current and voltage under over and under conditions with protection, and displaying system monitoring conditions on the screen

Keywords
battery management system, lithium iron phosphate, battery monitoring, balancing, and protection

Topic
Battery Technology and Management System

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/eBq97MkrbtGQ


Design of Battery Management System (BMS) for Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Battery
Muhammad Nizam, Hari Maghfiroh, Kirana Dyah Utari Kusumaputri, Rizal Abdulrozaq Rosadi

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Corresponding Author
Kirana Dyah Utari Kusumautri

Institutions
Universitas Sebelas Maret

Abstract
Lithium iron phosphate battery (LiFePO4, LFP) is one of the longest lifetime lithium ion batteries. However, its application in the long-term needs requires specific conditions to be operated normally and avoid damage. Battery management system (BMS) is the solution to this problem. The BMS designed in this study has three key features: monitoring, balancing, and protection. Arduino Nano as a microcontroller gives an advantage that is programable so that it can be used for all types of LFP batteries, without the need to re-create BMS. The results of this study indicate the ability of BMS in maintaining voltage values with passive balancing at 3.75V, disconnecting the input current and voltage under over and under conditions with protection, and displaying system monitoring conditions on the screen.

Keywords
battery management system, lithium iron batteries, monitoring, balancing, protection

Topic
Battery Technology and Management System

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/6DaRVTKzQuwq


Design of DC Fast Charging Buck Converter for LFP Battery on Electric Car
Trias Andromeda, Betantya Nugroho, Mohamad Isnaeni Romadhon, Joga Setiawan, Ismoyo Haryanto, Hermawan, Iwan Setiawan, Mochammad Facta, Abd. Rahim Mat Sidek

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Corresponding Author
Trias Andromeda

Institutions
Universitas Diponegoro

Abstract
Abstract— Electric Vehicle (EV) cars have developed very rapidly. In line with a growing number on the streets, the need for electric vehicle battery charging stations is increasingly expected. In community, there are three levels of battery charging stations that have been implemented. Level 1 is a charger with a 120 Vac source and it is the slowest charger level. Level 2 is a familiar charger found in homes and garages use a 240 Vac source. While level 3 is a Direct Current Fast Charger (DCFC) charger which is urgently needed for electric vehicle (EV). This paper will present the results of research on charging a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) battery using a DCFC buck converter. The converter is dedicated to be a charger of the EV. The result shows that the proposed converter has good performance because it has successfully charged the battery pack at 4 Ampere in the initial stage and it turned into full charge stage in 30 minutes at stable voltage at 14.4 Volt.

Keywords
EV, Electric Car, DCFC, Buck Converter, LFP Battery

Topic
Power Electronics and Its Applications

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/HVEYXLuNqbBA


Design of Five Stages Cockroft-Walton with Passive Filter
Vicky Mudeng, Yun Tonce Kusuma Priyanto, Himawan Wicaksono, Vicky Andria Kusuma, Mohammad Muntaha

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Corresponding Author
Vicky Mudeng

Institutions
Institut Teknologi Kalimantan, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

Abstract
Cockroft-Walton (CW) is a voltage multiplier (VM) circuit with an alternating current (AC) input to generate a direct current (DC) output. The CW circuit consists of several stages. Each stage, there are two diodes and capacitors to shift the AC input to be DC output. The maximum output of CW is the multiplication of two and number of stages, then the multiplied result times the peak voltage of AC input to obtain the DC voltage. However, the DC output contains ripple voltage. Therefore, the work within this study discusses five stages CWVM to ensure that it can effective as a power supply for the electric vehicle. We develop CWVM with the output of the multiplication between two and input peak voltage. To reduce the ripple voltage, we implement a capacitor filter in the simulation for verifying the results. Also, we simulate the output voltage by considering the results for each stage. The results indicate that the developed CWVM is reasonable to be a power supply for the electric vehicle.

Keywords
Cockroft-Walton, voltage multiplier, power supply

Topic
Power Electronics and Its Applications

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/JDFGBctvhdPX


Design Study of Battery System Protection Structure Based on Hybrid Material Fiber Metal Laminate (FML)
Teresa Nirmala (1,2*), Sigit Puji Santosa (1,2), Annisa Jusuf (1,2), Poetro Lebdo Sambegoro (1,2)

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Corresponding Author
Teresa Nirmala

Institutions
1) Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
2) National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology (NCSTT), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia

*Corresponding e-mail: teresanirmala21[at]gmail.com

Abstract
With the growing size of the electric vehicle (EV) market, the study of the battery system is paramount. Lithium-ion batteries have a high risk of flammability in the event of an accident or a collision that causes a short circuit. One of the highest potential threats to EVs is ground impact from stones or projectiles impingement that can hit and penetrate the battery pack. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a lightweight structure that can protect batteries in the event of dynamic impact load. The material used for the protection structure is fiber metal laminate (FML), which is a hybrid material consists of thin metal layers bonded together by intermediate composite. Evaluation of the risk of battery fire due to short circuit (battery shortening) and energy absorption of the protection structure is done by using the nonlinear finite element method. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effect of thickness, bonding strength, as well as two damage parameters such as failure and softening effect. Simulation results show that increasing the softening parameter can increase energy absorption but also increase the battery shortening. While increasing all the other parameters can increase energy absorption and reduce battery shortening. In this study, the most effective design for the protection structure was obtained, which is 1 mm-thick aluminum as the top and bottom layer, and 4.8 mm-thick carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) as the intermediate layer.

Keywords
Crashworthiness; Electric vehicles; FML; Ground impact

Topic
Lightweight Structure

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/DaEQBYVp8mhf


DESIGNING AUTOMATIC SYRINGE SHAKER AS THE SUPPORTING MEDIA FOR METHOD OF DISSOLVED GAS TRANSFORMER OIL ANALYSIS
Chico Hermanu Brillianto Apribowo, Agustinus Sujono, Hari Maghfiroh, Ratih Rachmatika

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Corresponding Author
Chico Hermanu Brillianto Apribowo

Institutions
Department of Electrical Engineering
Universitas Sebelas Maret
Surakarta, Indonesia

National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology
Bandung, Indonesia

Abstract
The general problem of operational power transformer was appearing in both thermal and electrical failure. Most of the power transformer usually used insulator oil that was functioning as cooler and to dissolve its hazardous gas in order not to circulate independently. Identifying type and number of gas concentration, which was dissolved in oil could provide information about the indication of failure that occurs in the transformer. Method for identifying and analyzing dissolved gas in the oil was called dissolved gas analysis (dga). Procedure for oil sampling of testing dga with a method of morgan schaffer was using syringe. In the use of syringe, after taking oil sample into syringe and then syringe was extracted to separate components of dissolved gas. Utilizing syringe in the process of extraction was not maximal since it had to be manually done the process of extraction for each syringe. In this research, it was done in making automatic syringe shaker, which could do an extraction of transformer oil to extract dissolved gas in the transformer oil automatically. This research would also determine the time and speed variable to obtain optimizing syringe shaker. This instrument used a dc motor as a driving source. Based on data, which was obtained, the percentage of extraction level that was obtained with using automatic syringe shaker transformer oil was smaller compared with the manual process and it had an error level of 0.124%. The timer test result of the length of extraction time showed that an error percentage of approximately 0.004%.

Keywords
dissolved gas analysis, syringe shaker, transformer oil

Topic
Power Electronics and Its Applications

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/LGJhdDqNZzWF


Development of Active Cell To Cell Battery Balancing System for Electric Vehicle Applications
Edi Leksono(1), Irsyad Nashirul Haq(2), Endang Juliastuti(3), Lalu Ghifarul Zaky Fahran(4), Fahri Muhamad Nabhan(5)

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Corresponding Author
Irsyad Nashirul Haq

Institutions
(1,2,3,4,5) Department of Engineering Physics
Institut Teknologi Bandung
Bandung, Indonesia
(2) National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology. Bandung, Indonesia

(1)edi[at]tf.itb.ac.id
(2)irsyad[at]tf.itb.ac.id
(3)yuliast[at]tf.itb.ac.id
(4)ghifarfahran[at]gmail.com,
(5)fahri.nabhan[at]gmail.com

Abstract
As of right now the development of electric vehicles is very rapid. This is supported by the transition from vehicles with fuel oil to electricity, the development of increasingly widespread electric vehicles, and the production of increasingly cheap batteries. Generally the battery used is a lithium-ion battery. But over time, the quality of the lithium-ion battery will be degraded so that the battery quality is not as early as its use. The causes of battery degradation are unbalanced cell in the battery pack. To overcome this problem, a reliable battery management system (BMS) is needed. In the design of the BMS to prevent the imbalance of the proposed battery voltage using the active method from cell to cell battery. BMS uses a microprocessor to process battery data, a microcontroller to control battery connecting switches, and a DC-DC converter circuit as well as a switched capacitor (SC). From the proposed design BMS is able to monitor the voltage of each battery directly, able to store automatic data on the database in the microprocessor, able to set the switch connected between the highest voltage battery to the lowest voltage battery, able to balance the battery with a voltage difference between batteries up to 0.0032 V, able to increase the capacity of the battery pack compared to the system without a balancing system up to 130 mAh , and the balancing system can increase the energy of the battery pack compared to the system without a balancing system to 10.363 Wh or 6.88%

Keywords
Lithium ion battery, active cell balancing, battery management system, electric vehicle

Topic
Battery Technology and Management System

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/RhxnCBvPmVkt


Development of an Integrated Axle for MD Trucks for Urban Distribution Traffic
Jürgen Tochtermann, Stephan Brandl

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Corresponding Author
Stephan Brandl

Institutions
Powertrain Engineering
AVL List GmbH

Abstract
The need for zero emission transport solutions in urban areas is strongly driven by topics like local air pollution, noise emissions as well as global CO2 reduction and public pressure. One solution for this demand are battery electric vehicles with the focus to provide emission free urban transportation combined with lowest total cost of ownership and consequently a positive business case for the end customers. Requirements and approaches to achieve this important goal are discussed in this paper.

Keywords
electrification, e-axle, cooling, powertrain integration

Topic
Electric System, Drives, Motors, Machinery

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/L7ZtHhKukDXA


Development of Big Data Analytics Platform for Electric Vehicle Battery Management System
Muchamad Iman Karmawijaya(1), Irsyad Nashirul Haq(2), Edi Leksono(3), Augie Widyotriatmo(4)

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Corresponding Author
Irsyad Nashirul Haq

Institutions
(1) Graduate Student at Department of Engineering Physics. Institut Teknologi Bandung
(1)iman95[at]gmail.com

(2,3,4) Department of Engineering Physics. Institut Teknologi Bandung
(2)irsyad[at]tf.itb.ac.id, (3)edi[at]tf.itb.ac.id, (3)augie[at]tf.itb.ac.id

(2) National Center for Sustainable Transportation Technology. Bandung, Indonesia

Abstract
Electric Vehicle (EV) Batteries must have high reliability to produce durable and sustainable electrical energy. Reliable electric batteries will certainly have high economic value and efficiency. Reliability can be obtained if the system and its supporting are monitored using an integrated and independent system for further analysis and observation. Battery Management System (BMS) is integrated parts of Electric Vehicle, Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), or solar applications e.g. solar power plant. Its functions are to integrate many things such as voltage sampling from cell battery, cells balancing, determine State of Charge (SOC), estimate State of Health (SOH), and predict Remaining Useful Life (RUL). The key technology needed for condition-based maintenance is Prognostic and Health Management. It is a new engineering approach that allows an assessment of the systems health when the system is operating. It combines various scientific disciplines, namely: sensing technology, modern statistics, machine learning, physics of failure, and reliability engineering. It will be combined with Big Data analysis. Big data uses existing technology and contemporary architecture that is designed to efficiently take advantage of the many and varied data. Big data analytics refers to the method of analyzing huge volumes of data, high velocity of data, variety different forms of data, and veracity of uncertainty of data. The main focus in this research is the development of an integrated observation system and the ability to make error predictions. This system consists of error detection, error diagnosis, and integrated prognosis. This research is to implement Big Data analytics Platform to evaluate the reliability level of electric vehicle Battery Management System.

Keywords
Electric Vehicle, Remaining Useful Life, Big Data Analytics, Battery Management System

Topic
Battery Technology and Management System

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/AGUe6DRTrJ3y


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