ANTIMICROBIAL POTENCY of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as HERBALMOUTHWASHES AGAINST CARIOGENIC BACTERIAL Streptococcus mutans Sinta Deviyanti, Margaretha Herawati, Adibah Ferhad
Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo (Beragama)
Background: Dental caries is a disease that is produced by the dissolution of local chemical surfacesof the teeth caused by product of microbial fermentation from dietary carbohydrates in the biofilmthat attached to the teeth. Streptococcus mutans as the primary microbial pathogen in the aetiology ofcaries. They have a characteristic ability to produce voluminous amounts of sticky, extracellularpolysaccharides in the presence of dietary carbohydrates, thus, help tenacious binding of theorganism to enamel. Caries can be prevented by regular tooth brushing and flossing as mechanicalplaque removal for cleaning the tooth. However, for many individuals, it difficult to eliminateStreptococcus mutans from the surfaces of the tooth by mechanical means alone over prolongedperiods. Consequently, for effective caries control, these methods should be combined with theantimicrobial agent such as mouthwash whould have a direct inhibitory effect on the microorganismthat can be bactericidal or bacteriostatic. However, they have several undesirable side effectsreported from clinical studies, including tooth staining, increased supragingival calculus formation,reversible desquamation of the oral tissue, burning sensation, bitter taste and altered tastesensations.The use of medicinal plants is highly considered, because of side effects of chemicalsubstances. Recently, Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves extracts as herbal mouthwashes are beingtried and have been scientifically proven from several studies to be safe and effective to protectionagainst dental caries because of its inhibitory effect or antimicrobial property against Streptococcusmutans. Purposes: The main aim of this literature review article is to explain the potenciallyantimicrobial herbal mouthwashes from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves extracts towardscariogenic bacterial Streptococcus mutans. Conclusions: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves extractsas herbal mouthwashes can be strongly recommended as a caries preventing agent.