Monitoring results of a 10kWp on-grid photovoltaic system in context of the current regulation for solar rooftops in Indonesia Daniel Pianka (a*bc), Emerita Setyowati (bc)
a) Christliche Fachkräfte International, Stuttgart, Germany *daniel[at]ukrimuniversity.ac.id b) Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Computer, Universitas Kristen Immanuel, Yogyakarta, Indonesia c) Study center for Renewable Energy, Universitas Kristen Immanuel, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
To fulfill the Paris climate agreement the Indonesian government aims to increase the share of renewable energy. Among others it aims to install 6.4 GWp of photovoltaics (PV) until 2025. However the 2018 installed capacity of total PV is only 52.6 MWp. A new regulation for solar rooftops came into effect in January 2019 to give more security for investments in solar projects. But for a majority of consumers, the implementation of the regulation and an economical operation of a PV system brings many hurdles. A 10 kWp PV on-grid system at UKRIM University is monitored to gain information about energy data, Return of Investment (RoI) and levelized costs of energy (LCOE). Based on the monitoring results, three different consumer types (social institutions, household and offices) are analyzed in respect to profitability. For the PV installation at UKRIM an RoI of 15 years is calculated. The LCOE is calculated as 0.051 USD/kWh and thus higher than the feed-in price of only 0.042 USD/kWh. The current 10 kWp PV system can offset 70% of the electricity demand of the building it is connected to. Nevertheless the most economical size would be only 7 kWp, showing that the most ecological (zero net energy) and the most economical system (fastest RoI) can differ greatly. The slow RoI makes a PV on-grid system economically not interesting for social tariffs. Though households and office buildings can achieve a faster RoI, mainly because of higher electricity prices. The current regulation is economically not attractive enough for buildings with a social electricity tariff. Optimizations of PV systems in interaction with the connected load and the load profile can lead to a faster RoI and lower LCOE, making a PV-rooftop system more attractive.
Keywords: photovoltaics, solar energy, monitoring, renewable energy, RoI, LCOE