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Abstract Topic: AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

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An Application of MODIS Global Terrestrial Evapotranspiration for Drought Assessment and Monitoring on Agriculture Area (case study on East Java – Indonesia)
Arif Faisol, Indarto, Elida Novita, Budiyono

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Corresponding Author
Arif Faisol

Institutions
Papua University, Jember Universuty

Abstract
Drougth is one of main natural disaster in Indonesia. Some regions in Indonesia are very vulnerable to drought including Java. These research aimed to mapping droughtness level on agriculture area in East Java using MODIS Global Terrestrial Evapotranspiration and Thornthwaite Mather methods. A total of 20 MODIS Global Terrestrial Evapotranspiration image recording 2018 – 2019 and ground cek on agriculture area at some location were used for analysis. Research show that MODIS Global Terrestrial Evapotranspiration and Thornthwaite Mather methods quite accurate in describing the level of drought on agriculture area.

Keywords
MODIS Global Terrestrial Evapotranspiration, Drought, Agriculture, Thornthwaite Mather.

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/eYxpafNMuBgR


Analysis of Land Use Effect on Erosion Rate (Case Study: 16 Watersheds in Tapalkuda Area – East Java)
Rhoshandhayani Koesiyanto Taslim, Indarto Indarto, Marga Mandala

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Corresponding Author
Rhoshandhayani Koesiyanto Taslim

Institutions
Program Studi Magister Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Air Pertanian Pascasarjana Universitas Jember

Abstract
Land use change that penetrate green area causes critical land. Critical land causes increase the erosion. Moreover, infrastructure development is increasing in the Tapalkuda area (Probolinggo, Lumajang, Jember, Bondowoso, Situbondo, and Banyuwangi). If erosion is higher, it will have an impact on the quantity and quality of water. For that, this research aims to analyze the effect of land use for erosion rates on 16 watershed of Tapalkuda in East Java using USLE method (Universal Soil Loss Equation) and GIS. The erosion rate was calculated based on the erosivity faktor (R) calculated from analysis of rainfall data, crop factor (C) and land use map analyzed by land use map 2014, the length and slope faktor (LS) calculated from the ASTER GDEM2, and erodibility faktor (K) obtained by soil type map. After the erosion rate was obtained, the comparised between erosion rate and land use that carried out using a correlation coefficient. The factor of land use analyzed are rice fields, settlements, fields, gardens and bushes.

Keywords
watershed, land use, erosion, USLE

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/YQ3TzfmrC2e8


Antibacterial Activity of Cocoa Pod Husk Phenolic Extract Againts Escherichia coli for Food Processing
Eka Mustika Diniardi1, Shinta Rosalia Dewi2, Bambang Dwi Argo2, Yusuf Wibisono*2,3

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Corresponding Author
Yusuf Wibisono

Institutions
1Master Program of Agriculture Engineering, Univ. of Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran No.1 Malang 65145, Indonesia
2Bioprocess Engineering, Univ. of Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran No.1 Malang 65145,
Indonesia
3MILI Water Research Institute, PO Box 301 ML, Malang 65101, Indonesia

Abstract
. The abundance of agricultural crop waste biomass gained attention as it could be converted into a more useful chemicals. Cocoa pod husks (CPH) is a waste of cocoa plantation, contains phenolic compounds which can be used as antibacterial ingredients. Phenolic compounds in CPH include phenolic acids, flavonoids and flavones. This study is aiming at evaluating antibacterial activity of CPH phenolic extracts, by using Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) method. Extraction was done using 96% ethanol as solvent and combination of biomass and solvent ratio of 1:4, 1:6 and 1:8 m/v, respectively, with microwave targeted extraction time of 2, 3 and 4 minutes, respectively. The extraction results with the highest total phenolic content were tested againts Escherichia coli activity using a disk diffusion method at an extract concentration of 5; 7.5; 10 and 15 mg/ml, respectively. The highest total phenolic content of 453 mg GAE/g dry extract was obtained from MAE treatment with biomass/solvent ratio of 1:4 (m/v) for 4 minutes. The results of the antibacterial activity of extracts against Escherichia coli showed that inhibitory zones had formed at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. The width of the inhibition zone increases as the concentration of extract increases. Antibacterial activity of CPH phenolic extract can be used for food processing, such as utilizing as fillers in a mixed matrix membranes for juice clarification.

Keywords
cocoa pod husk, extract, phenolic content, antibacterial activity, Escherichia coli

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/2MyhEcGLuTkp


Application of Electro-osmosis Methods in Brassica Juncea .L with Soil and Voltage Variations
Joko Prasetyo (a)*, Nur Ida Winny Yosika (b)

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Corresponding Author
Joko Prasetyo

Institutions
a) Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Brawijaya, Jalan Veteran, Malang, Indonesia
*jprasetyo2241[at]gmail.com
b) Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Brawijaya, Jalan Veteran, Malang, Indonesia
winniyosika8[at]gmail.com

Abstract
Electro-osmosis is a method for regulating water availability by utilizing one-way electric current directly. Two electrodes are installed on the ground and run by electricity, then the water contained in the soil will move from the positive electrode to the negative electrode. Water is a resource and a determinant factor that determines the performance of the agricultural sector. Water scarcity is a major obstacle in the management of dry land. Water maintained by electrodes will facilitate the roots to absorb water by utilizing the principle of electro-osmosis. In this study, we observed the rate of water withdrawal and growth of mustard plants using the electro-osmosis method at various input voltages (5, 12 and 24 volts) and combinations of soil types (clay, compost and sand). The best treatment is the 12 volt input voltage with a combination of dominant clay soil consisting of 40% clay, 30% compost and 30% sand.

Keywords
Electro-osmosis, soil, water, voltage

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/TwFkfXCZABgN


Artificial Neural Network to Predict Chlorophyll Content of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Leaf
Retno Damayanti, Sandra Malin Sutan, Elda Dahlena

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Corresponding Author
Retno Damayanti

Institutions
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

Abstract
Artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction system was presented for predicting the leaf population chlorophyll content from cassava leaf images. As the training of this prediction system relied heavily on how well those leaf green pixels were separated from background noises in cassava leaf images, a global thresholding algorithm and an omnidirectional scan noise filtering coupled with the hue histogram statistic method were designed for leaf green pixel extraction. With the obtained leaf green pixels, the system training was carried out by applying a back propagation algorithm. The system was tested to predict the chlorophyll content from the cassava leaf images. The results showed highest positive regression occurred in the saturation_HSL index against the total chlorophyll of cassava leaf as much as 78.6%. The best model produced through artificial neural network methods in predicting total chlorophyll is a network model with 8 inputs, 9 hidden layers and one output layer, in the proportion of training data 75% testing data 25% have value result the smallest MSE testing is 0.0921 with regression testing of 0.8468. Network model is able to read the highest source of chlorophyll on cassava leaf with 84.68%.

Keywords
Artificial Neural Network; Cassava leaf; Chlorophyll; Image processing.

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/g7PBxXedtqTG


CHILI COMMODITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN INDONESIA: LESSON LEARNED FROM VARIOUS NATIONAL PROGRAM AND RESEARCH
Sri Wahyuni

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Corresponding Author
Sri Wahyuni

Institutions
Indonesian Center For Agricultural Socioeconomic And Policy Studies
Jalan Tentara Pelajar N0.3B. Bogor 16111

Abstract
Chili has significant contribution in inflation, therefore government continue implementing various programs and conducting researches on chili to obtain maximum production (2.33 million tons in 2020). This paper aims to generate information as based of the policy. The methodology: 1) Reviewed the previous program and 2) Conducted research during the last 3 years such as in 2016 Chili resistance to drought climate ( East Java and West Nusa Tenggara), in 2017 Access of chili to export market in 2017 (West Java and North Sumatra and in 2018 Chili supply chain in Toko Tani Indonesia(TTI) in 2018 (Central Java and West Java). Results: 1) There were five famous chili national program had been implemented, three of the programs (Climate Field School or Sekolah Lapang Iklim (SLI), Annual Water Allocation Forecast or Rencana Alokasi Air Tahunan (RAAT) and Water Rescue and Partnership Movement or Gerakan Nasional Kemitraan Penyelamatan Air (or GNKPA) derived importance lesson learned; 2) farmers resilience index on drought (62-67 %) meaning could solve drought problem, Access of chili to export market constrained by high production input, meanwhile there is an opportunity to export to England and Germany, Mobile TTI marketing significantly shorten the supply chain. The proposs strategy is integrating the tree programs in a production center supported by a marketing institution.

Keywords
Chilli, National program, strategy

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/fpbcgkma2Utx


Compression Test for Candle Nut Shell to Obtain Minimum Fracture Strength
Darmanto, Gunomo Djoyowasito, Zaqlul Iqbal, Aulia Rahman

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Corresponding Author
Darmanto Darmanto

Institutions
Agricultural Engineering Department
Department of Agricultural Technology
University of Brawijaya

darmanto_sm[at]ub.ac.id

Abstract
The most important of breaking technique of candle nut seed is how to obtain undamaged seed. It Damaged shell effects in decreasing of selling price. The candlenut seed quality is determined by its wholeness. The primary composition of its shell are hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Alkaline solution can be used to separate lignin and cellulose. The objective of this research is to obtain minimum fracture strength of candle nut shell. Before doing compression test, it was needed pre-treatment by soaking the candle nut into alkaline solution that were NaOH solution and NaCl solution as first factor and second factor, respectively. Each of alkaline solution concentration divided into four concentration: 4%, 5%, 6%, and 7%. Then candle nut soaked using water during 24 hours and dried using oven. Finally, each of candle nut tested using compression test to obtain minimum fracture strength. Using Completely Randomized Design (CRD), the treatment combination was repeated three times, then compared to control treatment. Resulted data analyzed using analysis of variance to understand of each treatment characteristic. The result of this research is 4% NaOH and 3.5% NaCl concentration effected on the undamaged seed. These level concentration could separate lignin and cellulose better than other concentration.

Keywords
Candle Nut Shell, Compression Test, Alkali Solution

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/EpAjtHzXP2G9


Control of environmentally friendly technologies of purple blotch disease (Alternaria porri) and anthracnose on shallot in the rainy season
Ineu Sulastrini, Gunaeni N, Sutarya R and S Hartanto

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Corresponding Author
Ineu Sulastrini

Institutions
IAARD-IVEGRI, Jl. Tangkuban Parahu no. 517, Lembang, West Bandung 40391

Abstract
Purple blotch and anthracnose diseases are major diseases in shallot. The purpose of this study is to obtain control technology purple blotch and anthracnose diseases on shallot that are environmentally friendly in the rainy season. The design used in this study is a separate plot design (Split plot design) with the main plot shallot varieties (A), namely Sembrani, Bima Brebes and Maja Cipanas. As a sub-plot is the use of fungicides, ie chemical fungicides, chemical fungicides and biofungicides are used interchangeably and biofungicides are used routinely. The results showed that the Sembrani variety significantly affected the severity of purple blotch, anthracnose and stemphyllium diseases compared to the Bima Brebes and Maja Cipanas varieties. The use of chemical fungicides is continuously comparable to the use of chemical fungicides and biofungicides which are carried out alternately in controlling purple blotch, anthracnose and stemphyllium diseases on shallot

Keywords
control of technology, purple blotch, anthracnose, shallot, rainy season

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/yFuPXZLUqCEw


Design of fertilizing applicator for soybean: Field Test
Miraj Fuadi; Lilik Sutiarso; Radi

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Corresponding Author
MI-RAJ FUADI

Institutions
UGM

Abstract
The concept of precision farming, especially in fertilizer, aims to make fertilizer effective and efficient. In this study liquid applicator and fertilizer used were used, namely Urea and KCl. The applicator was tested in the field with a land size of 36 x 8 m divided into 6 plots and a spacing of 40 x 20 cm. Recommendations for fertilizer application are based on laboratory tests of Nitrogen and Potassium content each plot. The parameters recorded are the time and volume of the fertilizer used. From these data obtained the value of effective field capacity, theoretical field capacity, field efficiency and coefficient of variance. From the analysis results obtained field efficiency values of 78.4% and CV values for each plot ranged from 5.21 - 12.22%

Keywords
precision agriculture, fertilizer; VRA,

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/E4MBbmKnteaF


Design of Multifunction Paddy Harvesting Machines and Harrow Machines
Shafiq Nurdin (a*), Arianti Kusumawardhani (a), Sugiarto (b), Mahayu Woro Lestari (b), Khoirul Hidayat (c)

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Corresponding Author
Khoirul Hidayat

Institutions
a) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Unisma Polytechnic of Malang, Indonesia.
*irul_ie[at]yahoo.co.id
b) Department of Agro Technology, Islamic University of Malang, Indonesia.
c) Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Trunojoyo University, Indonesia

Abstract
The rice production of Malang Regency in 2017 reached 493,794 tons, so it was necessary to develop rice harvesting machines. This study aims to design rice harvesting machines and harrow machines. This research method has three stages, namely the design process using AutoCAD software, the manufacturing process is carried out starting from the preparation of tools and materials, frame making, blade modification, and machine testing by conducting trials on rice fields. The results of this study resulted in a multifunction machine, namely to harvest rice and as a harrowing machine for processing soil. This multifunctional rice harvesting machine is capable of harvesting rice area of 11 m2 / minute from 9 m2 / minute or increasing by 22.2%. Another advantage of this rice harvesting machine and ground scrubbing machine is that it can ease the burden on workers because this machine has two wheels as frame support.

Keywords
Design, Paddy Harvesting Machines, Harrow Machines

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/WpFcKmxkgGd8


Design of Prediction Tools for Banana Maturity Based on Image Processing
Sandra Malin Sutan; Istifar Yogi Prayogi; Retno Damayanti And Gunomo Djoyowasito

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Corresponding Author
Istifar Yogi Prayogi

Institutions
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

Abstract
Image processing is a method to process image become information consist of phisycal condition of product. Image processing applications in agriculture are currently developing very rapidly, especially for the prediction of fruit quality and maturity. The purpose of this study is to design a tool to predict the maturity of bananas. The type of banana used in this study is barlin banana (musa paradisiaca. L) with maturity levels 1, 3, 5 and 7. While the image processing characteristics used are data R, G and B which are captured by the TCS3200 sensor. From a number of experiments, a distinguishing factor is obtained for the RGB value for each level of maturity, maturity 1 with the value of G> B; maturity 3 with Value R> G, Value (R-G) <9 and G Value ≥ 142; maturity 5 with a value of R> G, a value of 9 ≤ (R-G) and a value of G ≥ 142; maturity 7 with a value of R> G and a value of 142 ≥ G. The results of the prediction of the banana maturity using this tool for maturity 1 accuracy prediction 100%, maturity 3 accuracy predictions 80%, maturity 5 accuracy prediction 100% and maturity 7 accuracy predictions 60%.

Keywords
Banana, Image Processing, Maturity, Prediction, TCS3200

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/XgzGaDcEjRqe


Determination of Effective Moisture Diffusivity and Activation Energy on Fixed Bed Drying of Red Pepper : A Comparison between Conventional Convective Drying and Convective Solar Drying.
Siti Asmaniyah Mardiyani (a);Sumardi Hadi Sumarlan(b);Bambang Dwi Argo(b);Amin Setyo Leksono (c)

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Corresponding Author
Siti Asmaniyah Mardiyani

Institutions
(a)Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Islam Malang, Jl. MT.Haryono 193 Malang, 65144,Indonesia
(b)Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, 65145,Indonesia
(c)Departement of Biology, Science and Nature Faculty, Brawijaya University, 65145

Abstract
This study aimed to determine the value of effective moisture diffusivity, and the activation energy of red pepper in a conventional forced convective drying based on electricity (Conventional convective drying/CCD) and forced convective drying based solar energy (Convective Solar drying/CSD). The value of effective moisture diffusivity was determined using equation, which refers to Ficks 2 law. The value of the activation energy is determined by the Arrhenius equation as a model of the relationship of inverse temperature and the value of (Ln) effective moisture diffusivity. The results showed that the values of effective moisture diffusivity of CCD 70 C were higher than the effective moisture diffusivity of other drying systems. The result of regression analysis between the drying layers (X) and effective moisture diffusivity (Y) showed a polynomial pattern with R2 value : 0.85 (CCD 70° C): 0.81 (CCD 60° C); 0.88 (CCD 50° C) and 0.48 (CSD). Coefficient determination (R2) values, which were relatively high in CCD, indicated that the drying systems are more stable than CSD, which is depended on the environmental conditions. The result of the drying activation energy calculation showed that the value of CCD-s activation energy was 36.36 KJ/mol K, while the value of CSD-s activation energy was 31.28 KJ/mol K. Those results were consistent with the results of the previous studies.

Keywords
moisture diffusivity, Activation Energy, conventional, solar, drying

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/3uyTWjUCfntr


Developing Partial Least Square (PLS) Model of Apple (Malus Sylvestris L) Internal Parameters by Means of UV/Vis Spectroscopy
Z Iqbal1, I P Adiyaksa1, A N Komariyah2, L C Hawa1, Y Hendrawan1, R Damayanti1, M A Kamal2

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Corresponding Author
Zaqlul Iqbal

Institutions
1Department of Agricultural Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
2Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
3Department of Agro-industrial Technology, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

Abstract
In order to determine the ripening stages of apple (Malus sylvestris L), local farmer in Malang still utilized a traditional method by examining its size and appearance. However, this method needs worker-s extensive experience causing a non-standard ripeness level that may lead to lower the economic value of the crop. Thus, to strive this problem, fast and quantitative prediction method need to be developed. UV/Vis spectroscopy has shown its capability to provide a robust prediction of several internal attributes such as, Total Solube Solid (TSS) and water content. The aim of this research is to develop a Partial Least Square (PLS) regression to predict internal parameter contained in apple. Sixty sample of apples were taken from local plantation in Bumiaji district. There were 3 stages to complete the research: (1) spectral data acquisition ranging from wavelength 340nm-800nm; (2) Internal parameters measurement (TSS, water content and firmness); (3) Performing PLS regression based on spectral data and internal parameters. The result showed that PLS model of TSS could provide a good coefficient of determination (r2 = 0,80) and for RPD, LV and RSMEP resulting 1.92, 7, 0.90 respectively. On the other hand, the model could not predict both water content and firmness; the model only provided low r2 accounting for 0.73 and 0.53 respectively. Further enhancement need to be addressed to the model for improving its capability of apple-s quality prediction.

Keywords
Apple, Partial Least Square, UV/Vis Spectroscopy

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/36q4hKYLrTfG


Difference of Antioxidant Activity on Original Wedang Uwuh, Brew, Dip, Instant and Syrup
Retnosyari Septiyani, Elok Rahmawati

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Corresponding Author
Retnosyari Septiyani

Institutions
Prodi Bisnis Jasa Makanan
Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Abstract
Wedang uwuh as a typical Imogiri Yogyakarta drink has been widely known to the wider community and even began to develop a lot like wedang uwuh in the original form of spice concoction, brew, dip, instant and syrup. However, research on wedang uwuh is still very limited. Therefore this study aims to carry out proximate analysis of the original, brewed, dipped, instant and syrup so that the chemical content is known and test the antioxidant activity so that it can provide information to the public about the types of variants of wedang which have the best antioxidant activity. Based on the proximate test results, wedang uwuh is boiled and dipped to have lower energy than the original wedang, instant and syrup. Testing of antioxidant activity with the DPPH and IC50 methods showed that wedang uwuh brew had the highest antioxidant activity value compared to the original, dip, instant and syrup variants with IC50 values of 9195.40 ppm. Factors that influence the differences in antioxidant activity in the original, brewed, dipped, instant and brewed ingredients include mechanical treatment, heat treatment, light exposure, and packaging used during storage.

Keywords
original wedang uwuh,brewed wedang uwuh , dip wedang uwuh , instant wedang uwuh , wedang uwuh syrup

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/XA2Ek8M9KVJY


Drying Kinetics and Physical Changes of Osmotically Pretreated Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Slice
La ChoviyaHawa (a*), Fatma Laili Khoirunnida (a), Sumardi Hadi Sumarlan (a)

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Corresponding Author
La Choviya Hawa

Institutions
a) Department of Agricultural Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya
Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, East Java Province, Indonesia

*la_choviya[at]ub.ac.id

Abstract
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is world-s main crops that owing poor storability characteristic in unprocessed state due to high water content. One of most widely used preservation method for vegetables such as potato is drying process with steam blanching and osmotic dehydration as pretreatment. Blanching and osmotic dehydration pretreatment are used for reducing water content as well as enhance dried product quality by immersing the product into hypertonic solution. In present study, potato slice blanched by steam for 3 min then soaked into three different type of salt as osmotic agent, i.e. NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 with different concentration (10, 15, and 20% (v/v)). The drying process was conducted using hot air dryer at 40°C for 4 h. The results indicated that higher concentration of hypertonic solution give greater water loss and solid gain value. The initial water content of pretreated potato slice was significantly decreased due to osmotic dehydration compared to non pretreated slices. The final potato slice water content with 10% KCl of pretreatment was slightly lower than other pretreatment combination. The drying rate of potato slices with 10 and 20% of CaCl were the lowest rate with almost similar pattern. Pretreatment with 10% CaCl was considered as the most effective pretreatment in terms of better surface color and minimum shrinkage of potato slice. The microscopy image showed that starch granules of potato were spread and invisible due to starch gelatinization. The appearance of cell wall was not clear with less shrinkage of potato microstructure.

Keywords
Drying, Drying kinetics, Osmotic dehydration, Physical alteration, Salt solution

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/jYNmGhwXJn3H


Effect of anthocyanin extract concentration on edible film as a pH-based biosensor
Irna Dwi Destiana*, Atika Romalasari, Hasna Azzahra

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Corresponding Author
Irna Dwi Destiana

Institutions
Department of Agro-Industry
Subang State Polytechnic
Jl. Bigjen Katamso No. 47 Subang, Indonesia
*irnadwidestiana[at]gmail.com

Abstract
Butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea L.) is an edible flower that rich in anthocyanin compounds. Anthocyanin pigments such as flavonoid compounds constitute the largest natural pigments responsible for the vivid red, blue, purple and orange color in plant tissue. Anthocyanin are sensitive to changes in pH and temperature level and very suitable for use as active ingredients in pH based biosensor. Biosensor can be made from starch that is made into edible film. The objectives of this study were to determine the exact percentage of anthocyanin extracts addition to the edible film to be used as biosensor, to determine the color and pH level of the edible film. Edible films were made from tapioca flour, glycerol, CMC and acetic acid and anthocyanin extract of butterfly pea flowers. The treatment taken are the difference addition concentration of anthocyanin extract consisting of 10%, 20% and 30%. The parameters observed were anthocyanin levels, color and pH level produced from edible films with various extract percentages. The result showed the highest level of anthocyanin was produced from 30 % anthocyanin extract treatment (101,223 mg / 100g). The result on color was based on the brightness level of the achromatic color of the edible film with the highest content with value of L * 56.35, value of a * 6.93, and value of b * -7.83, edible film was in dark blue color. The result of pH value was pH 5.19.

Keywords
Clitoria ternatea L extract, biosensor, pH

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/NLwEhtAFbaqC


Effect of rice bran storage on the antioxidant activity of a hydrophilic extract
Enny Purwati Nurlaili1), Sri Hartati2), Retno Widyastuti2) dan Febbi Nurahmawati2)

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Corresponding Author
Enny Purwati Nurlaili

Institutions
1)Study Program of Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Semarang, Jl. Pawiyatan Luhur Bendan Dhuwur Semarang
2)Study Program of Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural, Universitas Veteran Bangun Nusantara Sukoharjo, Jl. Letjend S. Humardani No. 1 Sukoharjo 57521

Abstract
The utilization of rice bran in rice milling in Java, in general, is not as soon as after leaving the mill. The research aims to determine whether the duration of rice bran storage affects the antioxidant activity, yield and total phenols of hydrophilic extracts. The study was conducted with rice bran treatment stored for 0, 1, and 2 weeks. Each sample was extracted hydrophilic component with ethanol solvent. The extracts obtained were tested including yield, total phenol, and antioxidant activity. The results showed that the increase in yield experienced a significant difference, especially in the second week. Total phenol and antioxidant activity increased significantly in the first week and decreased again in the second week. The conclusions from this study indicate that the duration of rice bran storage needs to be considered the optimal limit.

Keywords
antioxidant activity, hydrophilic extracts, rice bran, total phenols, yield

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/eKku6EAUajRY


Engineering analysis in the development of Modified Atmosphere Storage (MAS) to extend shelf life of tropical agricultural fresh products during storage
Eusabius Paul Pega, Nursigit Bintoro and Arifin Dwi Saputro

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Corresponding Author
Eusabius Paul Pega

Institutions
UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA
Bulaksumur, Caturtunggal, Kec. Depok, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, 55281

Abstract
An attempt to extend the shelf life of fresh products after harvest still need to be investigated to find the most applicable technology with the cheapest cost for the farmer. Seeking of such technology becomes an important aspect for better postharvest handling in Indonesia. In the developed countries, since along ago there has been a storage technology known as controlled atmosphere storage (CAS), however this technology is very complicated and very expensive to build. As an alternative, MAS seems to be possible to develope for developing country as Indonesia, since MAS doesn-t need a precise controlled of the gas composition continuously and much cheaper than CAS. The purpose of this study was to develope and investigate a method including the equipment to store fresh agricultural produtcs which could be modify the gas composition and temperature inside the storage room, which was know as MAS. Reseach had been carried out by constructing the MAS equipment first. The equipment made from available components from the local marked such as wood board, heat insulator, refrigeration unit, nitrogen gas tank, carbon dioxide gas tank, oxygen gas tank, pipes and so on. Then continued by examining the constructed equipment to create various gas composition and storage temperature inside the storage room as required for storage of fresh products. It was found that both temperature and gas composition could be created as required manualy by choosing intended temperature level and regulating gas flow from the tank. Concentration of oxygen inside storage room could be reduced by flushing nitrogen gas from the tank until the intended value was reached. As lower oxygen concentration was the main factor to reduce respiration rate, while nitrogen gas was known as an inert gas this meant that the created of gas composition to extend shelf life of agricultural product definetely could be resulted. It was found that resulted gas compisition could be maintained around one day and need to be adjusted again to the intended composition after that. The next research would be conducted to examine the performance of the equipment using fresh product inside the storage room. This research was still in progress using tomato as the sample. Some parameters would be measured both dealing with the performance of the equipment and physical properties of the stored fresh product. The combination of gas composition and temperature inside storage room of MAS would be investigated applying factorial design experiment 3 x 4 with three replication. The resulted data would be analyzed both statisticaly and mathematically including the application of kinetics modeling.

Keywords
modified, atmosphere, storage, tomatoes, kinetics

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/HxcpzV6CvM34


Ergonomic Modification of Hand Thresher To Reduce Workers Posture Risk
Yovita Wanda Saputri (a*), Guntarti Tatik Mulyati (b), Mohammad Maksum (b)

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Corresponding Author
Yovita Wanda Saputri

Institutions
a) Department of Agro-industrial Technology, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Jl. Flora Bulaksumur No.1, Caturtunggal, Depok, Kabupaten Sleman, Indonesia
*yovitawanda[at]gmail.com
b) Department of Agro-industrial Technology, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Jl. Flora Bulaksumur No.1, Caturtunggal, Depok, Kabupaten Sleman, Indonesia

Abstract
Hand thresher is a threshing tool with the largest percentage of 49% used by rice harvesters in DIY. It has more difference starts from the shape, size, material and even the completeness of the facilities that affects the posture of thresher workers when using or when the transportation process of the tools. The purpose of this study is to transporting the hand thresher who is expected to reduce the risk of rice threshing workers, facilitate of transporting process, and then evaluate modification of hand thresher with physical workload from the workers and count the value of the modification. Modification was carried out using VA method, RULA tools, NBM tools, CVL and the function of each components of the tool. Posture assessment conducted using the RULA method showed a decrease from 7 to 6 for the removal process and 6 to 5 for threshing process. From VA method, the total value of new tools is 9⋅6×105 for the value of the new hand trainer tool. Some of the components added to the modification of hand thresher are fans, sockets, sieves, opening holes, wall coverings, entry holes, thresher cylinder covers, holes for carrying bamboo, wheels, and handlebars.

Keywords
Hand thresher, Modification, Value Analysis

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/7dpWuzAEj2VX


Feasibility Study on The Use of UV/Vis Spectroscopy to Measure Total Phenolic Compound (TPC) and pH in Apple (Malus Sylvestris L) Combined with Chemomectrics Analysis
Z Iqbal1, A N Komariyah2, I P Adiyaksa1, B D Argo2, Y Wibisono2, M A Kamal3, R Damayanti1

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Corresponding Author
Zaqlul Iqbal

Institutions
1Department of Agricultural Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
2Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
3Department of Agro-industrial Technology, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

Abstract
Apple (Malus sylvestris L) is one of important crops cultivated as a raw material to produce typical product from Malang City such as, apple drink and chip. In order to produce a good quality product, a uniform ripeness level of apple need to be attained. As a traditional method, the farmer and industrial worker only sorted the raw material based on its physical properties, i.e. size and colour, which depend on their decision that may lead to non-standard result. Thus, to address this issue, a rapid and quantitative measurement such as UV/Vis spectroscopy need to be developed. The aim of this research is to study the feasibility on the use of UV/Vis spectroscopy to determine apple quality based on its chemical compound. To achieved the conclusion, several stages had to be conducted. First, the total 60 sample of apples from 4 different ripening stages (3, 4, 5 and 6 month) were collected from local farmer in Bumiaji District and extracted. The juice from extraction was prepared for UV/Vis spectrum collection ranging from 340-800nm. Then, the Total Phenolic Compound (TPC) and pH were measured. Second, performing chemometric analysis to provide Partial Least Square (PLS) prediction model. And the third was identifying robustness of the model by analysing all the statistic parameter. The result showed that, PLS model to predict pH provided good determination coefficient (r2) resulting 0.9142 while RPD, LV and RSMEP accounting for 1.98, 6, and 0.0466 respectively. Meanwhile, the TPC could not be predicted well by using this regression.

Keywords
Apple, checomectric, quantitative measurement, UV/Vis spectroscopy

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/nak6jD3L27ep


Hybridization of Nitrogen Compounds and Hydroxyapatite: A Slowly Released Fertilizer for Water Sustainability
Yusuf Wibisono*1, 3, Rut Yuliani2, Nadinda Kamilia1, Dini Dinda Ardian2, Anang Lastriyanto1, Sandra Sandra2

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Corresponding Author
Yusuf Wibisono

Institutions
1Bioprocess Engineering, Univ. of Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran No.1 Malang 65145,
Indonesia
2Agriculture Engineering, Univ. of Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran No.1 Malang 65145,
Indonesia
3MILI Water Research Institute, PO Box 301 ML, Malang 65101,
Indonesia

Abstract
ZA (ammonium sulfate) and NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound) are nitrogen-rich fertilizers commonly used by farmers. The fertilizers have high solubility in water, decay rapidly in wet soil and decompose into ammonia. Its lead into eutrophication phenomena and its absorption by crop roots becomes less effective. A facile and scalable method is developed to hybrid fish scale based powdered hydroxyapatite with nitrogen-rich compounds for slow-release fertilizer. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a material that contains phosphorus and is a well-binding agent of nitrogen. This study is aiming at synthesizing HAp from calcium-rich fish scale biowaste using wet-chemical precipitation method and coated the HAp particles with ZA and NPK fertilizer. From the experiment, the total nitrogen content of ZA is 26,95% and NPK is 16,46%. The hybrid ratio is 6:1, and nitrogen release is tested every 120 seconds using percolation method. The percolate contents analyzed using Kjehdahl methods. The nitrogen release of the hybrids is compared to obtain the best kinetics model i.e. zero order kinetics, 1st order kinetics, Higuchi model and Kosmeyer-Peppas models and to analyze sorption isotherm by using BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) method. The use of hydroxyapatite-based slow release fertilizer, might prevent the water resources from fertilizer contamination as well as enhance the crop production using more efficient crop irrigation.

Keywords
hydroxyapatite, kinetic, nitrogen, slow release, fertilizer

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/9gGUDu7tYMvE


On the Development of Mini Membrane Module (mMm) for Mass Transport Assessment of Mixed Matrix Membrane
Yusuf Wibisono*1, 4, Yogo Migunani2, Darmanto2, Mochammad Agus Choiron3

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Corresponding Author
Yusuf Wibisono

Institutions
1Bioprocess Engineering, Univ. of Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran No.1 Malang 65145,
Indonesia
2Agriculture Engineering, Univ. of Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran No.1 Malang 65145,
Indonesia
3Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran No.1 Malang 65145,
Indonesia
4MILI Water Research Institute, PO Box 301 ML, Malang 65101,
Indonesia

Abstract
A newly developed green membrane for juice clarification has been successfully made by utilizing natural antibiofoulant impregnated cellulose acetate mixed matrix membranes. The extract impregnated into cellulose acetate polymer to form mixed matrix membranes with higher and foodgrade antibiofouling properties. In order to evaluate mixed matrix membrane mass transport, a specialized mini membrane modules (mMm) has been developed. The mini membrane module has ring-shaped stainless stell plates with 160 mm outer diameter and 100 mm inner diameter. A couple of 10 mm thick circular PMMA plates with diameter 120 mm mounted between two halves of the ring-shaped stainless stell plates. A coupon of mixed matrix membranes placed within the circular plates with customized grooves thickness to place feed spacer and permeate spacer mimicking the configuration of industrial scale spiral-wound membrane modules. The used of circular PMMA plates allows direct monitoring of membrane mass transfer without disturbing the process. This study utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to evaluate fluid distribution in rectangular, quadrilateral and circular narrow channels. Three different superficial velocities which are normally found in spiral wound membrane modules were evaluated, i.e. 0.11, 0.16 and 0.2 m/s. Trans-membrane pressure normally used in ultrafiltration processes were evaluated, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 bars. Based on CFD analysis, circular channel provides a more uniform and distributed velocity stream compare to the others. The circular shape also provide advantage on managing superficial feed flow inside the membrane channel, compared with rectangular and quadrilateral shapes channel. The mini membrane modules potentially reduces laboratory scale research cost, while maintaining the similar operating variables of larger scale.

Keywords
mixed matrix membrane, modules, mass transport, fouling, spiral-wound membrane

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/NATMztuRyeCj


Production of Dextrin from Oil Palm Stem by Steam Explosion with Different Temperature
Syarifah Yusra (a), Chusnul Hidayat(a)*, Yudi Pranoto(a), Chairil Anwar(b)

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Corresponding Author
Syarifah Yusra

Institutions
a)Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
b)Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
Email: yusraalydrus[at]gmail.com

Abstract
This research aimed to modify a starch obtained from palm oil production waste to produce dextrin through steam explosion (SE). The starch was extracted by an aqueous system followed with sedimentation. The SE process was performed at different temperatures (120, 130, 140, 150 and 160 °C). The dextrin products were analyzed physically and chemically for dextrin solubility, moisture content, ash content, XRD profile, FTIR profile, dextrose equivalent (DE) and molecular weights (MW). The results obtained mentioned that SE process at temperature of 120 oC gave the best characteristics of dextrin which was comparable to commercial dextrin. The dextrin had the best solubility among other products. The XRD profile of the dextrin exhibited the same difractogram patterns with a peak at 2-theta = 19.4 and FTIR profiles with main peaks at wavenumbers 1148, 1077, 994 and 928 cm-1 as CD. Among the temperature treatments, the highest DE value was obtained for SE at temperature of 120 oC (10,33 ± 0.16), which was still less than that of CD (18,46 ± 0.04). This gave the MW of the product 102000 g/mol, higher than MW of CD (44000 g/mol).

Keywords
Oil Palm, Palm Stem, Steam explosion, Dextrin, starch modification

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/N7A9wXvZHdCM


Silica Extraction From Rice Husk As Slow Release Fertilizer Using Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE)
Dina W Indriani1, N Barunawati2, S H Sumarlan1 and L Teresia 1

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Corresponding Author
Dina Wahyu Indriani

Institutions
1 Departement of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology,
Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
2 Department of of Agricultural Cultivation Faculty of Agricultural, Universitass Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

Abstract
The use of raw materials from waste is now one of the alternatives in the "zero waste" effort, rice husk is one of the wastes in the process of ignoring rice. Rice husk has a very high silica content of around 80-90. Extraction of silica from rice husk can be used to make slow release fertilizer. Slow release fertilizer is a fertilizer with a nutrient release mechanism that periodically follows the pattern of nutrient absorption by plants. The tablet fertilizer application allows plants to absorb nutrients throughout the period of growth and development by minimizing the risk of loss due to washing, and avoiding the risk of excess dissolved salt. This study aims to determine the optimization of rice husk tablets by extraction using Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) and determine the physical and chemical properties of the results of rice husk tablet extracts. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors, namely the concentration of KOH with variations in solvents 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% and a comparison of warm-up times of 5 minutes, 7.5 minutes and 10 minutes. the largest yield were 7.5% KOH with the longest heating time of 10 minutes of 5.30%. XRF analysis, it was found that the largest silica value was 6.51% at 5% KOH with a heating time of 5 minutes. The data obtained from the hardness test obtained the smallest value of 1,131 Kgf and the largest was 3,356 Kgf. Based on comparison with the heating conventional method, extraction had not reached optimum results of silica extract.

Keywords
Extraction, MAE, Rice Husk, Silica, Slow Release Fertilizer

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/EPaAzhBynKJL


Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fermented Pangium edule Reinw. Seed
La ChoviyaHawa (a*), Yusuf Wibisono (b), Roliannisa (b)

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Corresponding Author
La Choviya Hawa

Institutions
a) Department of Agricultural Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya
Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, East Java Province, Indonesia
b) Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya
Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, East Java Province, Indonesia

*la_choviya[at]ub.ac.id

Abstract
Fermented seed of the tropical tree Pangium edule Reinw., locally known as kluwak, have been used as spices in Asian and especially Indonesia cuisine. For further processing and post harvest handling, physical and mechanical properties of the seed are needed. Some physical properties, i.e. length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, unit mass and per 100 seeds, sphericity, surface area, true density, bulk density, porosity, peel ratio, and angle of friction at five different surface (cardboard, stainless steel, iron plate, glass, and wood) of kluwak seeds were evaluated at the market moisture content (50.1%). Also, some mechanical properties, i.e. compressive force, strain, stress and Young modulus at three dimensions axis have been measured. The average length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, unit mass and per 100 seeds were 44.94±5.6 mm, 43.35±5.2 mm, 27.40±3.4 mm, 37.36±3.2 mm, 11.47.±3.7 g and 1693.39±483.85 g. In the market moisture content, the results indicated 0.87±0.07, 4413.99±733.22 mm2, 1.01±0.01 g/cm3, 0.42±0.03 g/cm3, 58.21±3.37% and 69.10±13.84% for average sphericity, surface area, true density, bulk density, porosity and peel ratio of the seed, respectively. Angle of friction for respective cardboard, stainless steel, iron plate, glass, and wood were 25.52±6.9 deg, 17.40±3.92 deg, 21.40±5.2 deg, 12.27±42 deg, and 24.8±7.45 deg. The average compressive force needed to break the seed at length, width, and thick axis were 295.34±87.95 N, 283.87±83.90 N, and 215.71±65.53 N. The strain, stress, and Young modulus were 0.095±0.03, 2.10±0.71 N/mm2, and 23.16±7.20 N/mm2 at length axis; 0.069±0.03, 2.66±0.88 N/mm2, and 45.44±20.95 N/mm2 at width axis; 0.05±0.02, 2.05±0.63 N/mm2, and 48.12±22.61 N/mm2 at thick axis, respectively.

Keywords
Fermented kluwak, Physical properties, Mechanical properties

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/tLCT29MjuYJy


Spudy Agrihorti is a high yielding potato variety suitable for chipping industry
Kusmana, Nazly Aswani, Tri Handayani

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Corresponding Author
Kusmana Kusmana

Institutions
Indonesia Vegetable Research Institute, Jl. Tangkuban Perahu 517 Lembang, Bandung.
Kusmana63[at]yahoo.com

Abstract
ABSTRACT. The demand for potato in the domestic chips industry is very high and most of it is still imported. Therefore a breakthrough is needed to get new superior varieties of processed potato chips that are suitable for industrial raw materials both large, medium and small industries. The purpose of this study was to obtain a new chipping potato variety. The output of this activity is to get a chipping potato variety. The study was conducted in Cikajang, District Garut (1300 m asl). The experimental design was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), number of replications was 4 times, the treatment consisted of six genotypes Spudy Agrihorti, clones 12.20, clones 14.5.1 and three comparative varieties Atlantic, Medians and Granola. Plant population 80 plants / plot. Observations were made on the qualitative character, quantitative character and chemical analysis of potato. The results showed that one superior genotype was Spudy Agrihorti with very high yield potential reaching 40.8 tons / ha higher than comparative varieties of Atlantic (29.4 tons / ha) and Medians (32.3 tons / ha). Spudy Agrihorty also displays supporting data of highly qualified processed quality to be used as raw material for the chips industry. This is indicated by high carbohydrate content of 14.77%, high specific gravity of 1.093 m3 with very low reducing sugar content of 0.03%. The quality results of Spudy agrihorti chips are preferred by consumer respondents because they have a yellow chip color compared to chipping varieties of Atlantic and Medians.

Keywords
Potatoes, raw material for chips, testing.

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/uRfHZhEreC8g


Study of Hydrolysis and Non-Hydrolysis Treatment of Rice Bran and The Solvent Type on antioxidant activity of hydrophilic extract
Sri Hartati1), Retno Widyastuti1), Indah Sanny Larasati1) and Enny Purwati Nurlaili2)

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Corresponding Author
Sri Hartati

Institutions
1)Study Program of Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural, Universitas Veteran Bangun Nusantara Sukoharjo, Jl. Letjend S. Humardani No. 1 Sukoharjo 57521

2)Faculty of Agricultural Product Technology Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Semarang.

Abstract
Rice bran is known having bioactive antioxidant compounds that are hydrophilic and lipophilic. Rice bran extraction on hydrophilic bioactive compounds need to be optimized. This study aims to determine the impact of hydrolysis and non-hydrolysis treatments to bran as well as the solvent type on the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic bioactive compounds in bran extract. The study was conducted by varying the treatment of bran extraction to obtain the best hydrophilic extract. Variation in treatments include with or without hydrolyzing rice brans. In addition, there were variations on the solvent type to dissolve the hydrophilic bioactive compounds by using 96% of ethanol and ethyl acetate. Parameters of the observation consist of yield, total phenol and antioxidant activity scavenging free radicals (DPPH). The results showed that the treatment of hydrolyzed and un hydrolyzed rice brans and the solvent type provided a significant difference to the yield, total phenol and antioxidant activity of hydrophilic bioactive compounds from rice bran. The highest yield (1.72%), total phenol (12.37 mg EAG/g) and antioxidant activity (68.74%) were resulted from the bran treatment without hydrolysis and using ethanol as the solvent type. Extraction of hydrophilic bioactive compounds can be done by using a method without hydrolyzing the rice brand and using ethanol as the solvent.

Keywords
rice bran, bioactive compound, antioxidant, hydrophilic extract

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/uzxtMETArkFQ


THE UTILIZATION OF JAMU WASTE AS A BIOFERTILIZER MATERIAL FOR MAKING ORGANIC FERTILIZER IN RUKUN MAKARYO FARMERS GROUP
Catur Rini Sulistyaningsih and Catur Budi Handayani

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Corresponding Author
catur rini sulistyaningsih

Institutions
Faculty of Agriculture , Veteran Bangun Nusantara University of Sukoharjo

Abstract
Abstract . The Community Partnership Program aims to handle livestock waste, namely the making of starter-mol (biofertilizer) based on herbal waste as well as biological fertilizer and the manufacture of solid organic fertilizer based on solid manure (feces) and cattle feed residues. The target of the Community Partnership Program is to reduce waste pollution, especially herbal medicine waste, increase the added value of herbal waste that can be used as a source of microorganisms in making starter-mol (biofertilizer), increase knowledge about making biofertilizers and quality organic fertilizers, produce quality organic fertilizers in order to fulfil the fertilizer needs of Rukun Makaryo farmer group. Increasing the yield of organic rice produced by Rukun Makaryo farmer groups. The method is done by counseling with lectures, discussions, through training with direct practice by partners, mentoring to partners and evaluation. The 38 participants who followed the pretest-posttest and 57.63% improved understanding so that training and extension activities have reached an indicator of successLaboratory analysis results on the content of macroelements (N, P, K), organic C, organic matter and C / N Ratio following fertilizer quality standards from Menpen (Compost Standardization No: 28 / Permentan / SR.130 / 5/2009 , May 22, 2009 and 2005.

Keywords
herbal medicine waste, organic fertilizer, Rukun Makaryo farmer group

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/274XQhAL8WwN


Utilization of Bambara (Vigna subterranea L.) Flour as a Substitution of Wheat Flour in Making Cookies.
Wiwik Endah Rahayu*, Irna Dwi Destiana, Waryudin

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Corresponding Author
Wiwik endah Rahayu

Institutions
Department of Agro-Industry
Subang State Polytechnic
Jl. Bigjen Katamso No. 37 Subang, Indonesia

Abstract
Bambara beans (Vigna subterranea L.) have good carbohydrate and protein content with 56.61% carbohydrates and 20.6% protein. The purpose of this study was to determine the proximate content of bambara bean flour and panelists acceptance of the product utilization of bambara bean flour as a substitute for wheat flour in making cookies. Research and testing were carried out at the Nutrition and Food Laboratory Campus 1 of Subang State Polytechnic and UNPAS Food Technology Laboratory. The dried soybean flour is then proximate tested while the treatment in making cookies is: P1 (75% bambara flour: 25% wheat flour), P2 (50% bambara flour: 50% wheat flour), P3 (25% bambara flour) : 75% flour). Proximate test results of bambara bean flour are 7.13% moisture content, 22.64% protein content, 8.09% fat content, 3.75% ash content and 58.46% carbohydrate content. The hedonic test results showed that P1 (the addition of 75% bamboo and 25% flour) was most preferred by panelists in terms of color (3,6), taste (3,8) and aroma (3,7) and crispness (3,7) 5) preferred. Cookies that can be well received by panelists are in treatment 1 (P1) with proximate test results of 3.50% water content, 11.21% protein content, 24.14% fat content, 2.07% ash content and carbohydrate content 59.09%.

Keywords
bambara beans, cookies, organoleptic, proximate analysis

Topic
Agricultural Engineering

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/4C7GYZVfKNcg


Vitamin C Prediction Of Tomatoes Based on Image Processing Using TCS3200 Color Sensor
Sandra Malin Sutan, Retno Damayanti*, Yusuf Hendrawan, Bambang Susilo

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Corresponding Author
Retno Damayanti

Institutions
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
*damayanti[at]ub.ac.id

Abstract
Tomato is widely consumed in Indonesia and have highest nutritional content of vitamin C. Vitamin C can be generally analyzed at laboratory which takes a long time and could be destructive. The maturity level of tomato is determined by changes in skin surface color. One technique that can be used to measure the tomatoes maturity by digital images. Digital image processing techniques can be non-destructively to analyzed vitamin C content. Vitamin C in tomatoes, design the system automatically, simple and practical with a small dimension scale on digital images, and perform performance testing of vitamin C prediction on tomatoes based on tomato skin color. The digital image processing uses Arduino UNO and TCS3200 sensors. The performance test and the database input will be tested using 10 pieces of raw, undercooked and cooked tomatoes. The resulting design can be used automatically, simply and practically cause design have dimensions of 19 cm high and 15 cm long with 350 grams of weighing. The toll is can be used in a practical manner and assisted by a 7800 mAh power bank and the output of 5v as a component power . The results of performance testing show that it can detect vitamin C content based on the database by obtaining a success rate of 93%.

Keywords
Image Processing; TCS3200 Color Sensor; Tomato; Vitamin C.

Topic
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/7qnVTyPrdzQ8


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