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Abstract Topic: Energy Conservation and Efficiency

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Analysis of Electricity Generation from Landfill Gas (Case Study: Manggar Landfill, Balikpapan)
Cut Keumala Banaget (a*), Basile Frick (b), Muhamad Nur Ibnu Luthfi Saud (a)

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Corresponding Author
Cut Keumala Banaget

Institutions
(a) Institut Teknologi Kalimantan
*keumala[at]lecturer.itk.ac.id
(b) Polytech Annecy-Chambery Universite Savoie Mont Blanc

Abstract
Despite of adverse impacts on the environment, landfill has big potency as renewable energy sources since it generates biogas from organic waste degradation process which can be used for power plant purposes. In 2017, the volume of waste disposed to Manggar Landfill was 128,000 tons, which mostly are organic waste (59.4%). Therefore, this study aims to estimate the amount of energy that can be generated from landfill as methane, by calculating biogas production in landfill based on waste generation, as well as composition using LandGem and Afvalzorg model. In 2017, Manggar landfill produced about 4×103 Mg CH4/year or about 5.31 to 6.44×106 m3/year. The estimated methane then converted to electricity using gas engine and trigeneration methods. Using gas engine, methane from Manggar Landfill is predicted to produce electricity about 787 MWh/month. On the other hand, if trigeneration method applied (by keeping the same gas engine as before), it produces 41.8% of heat which convert to 29.3 kWh of cold. In conclusion, it will be beneficial if Manggar Landfill capture and treat methane for generating electricity since Manggar Landfill produces about 6.44×106 m3/year which can be used for electricity purposes of around 10,000 people using gas engine.

Keywords
Electricity; Gas engine; Landfill gas; Methane production; Trigeneration

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/ZeaHL2tVy4dh


Carbon Sequestration Analysis of Open Green Spaces Toward CO Emission from Motor Vehicles in Semarang
Alif Ramadhan Kurniawan(a*) , Iqbal Putut Ash Shidiq(a*), Rokhmatuloh(a*)

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Corresponding Author
Alif Ramadhan Kurniawan

Institutions
(a*) Department of Geography, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia

Abstract
As the center of human activity, a city needs supporting infrastructures. One of the essential city infrastructures is the road to provide transportation and mobilities within the city. A motor vehicle is one of the famous transportation modes in the city. In a developing country like Indonesia, motor vehicles such as private passenger cars and motorbikes are still becoming the primary selection of transportation modes. The number of car and motorbike are always growing every year, especially in metropolitan cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan, and Semarang. This circumstance will have an impact on environmental condition like degradation in air quality, escalation in air surface temperature, and health issues. Carbon emission from fossil fuel combustion will increase the concentration of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. In more extended time, it will contribute to global warming and changes in urban climatic condition. This study is being conducted to show the open green space distribution and to the carbon sequestration capability, especially towards the carbon emission from motor vehicles. This study uses Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI) generated from Landsat OLI-TIRS and Sentinel-2 imageries to map open green space distribution. Tree stand parameters like diameter breast height (DBH) and tree height collected from field observation are being utilized in the allometric equation to extract biomass and carbon stock information. The results from this study are expected to describe the condition of open green space and its capability to sequestrate carbon from the motor vehicle in Semarang.

Keywords
Carbon sequestration, carbon emission, satellite imagery, vegetation index, allometric equation

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/qkpE62JAXFG7


CFD Simulation on the Natural Ventilation and Building Thermal Performance
Ratih Widiastuti (a*c); Muhammad Ismail Hasan (bc); Chely Novia Bramiana (bc); Previari Umi Pramesti (c)

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Ismail Hasan

Institutions
(a*) Faculty of Integrated Technologies, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong, BE1410, Brunei Darussalam

(b) Department of Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur-Malaysia

(c) Architectural Design, Vocational School, Diponegoro University, Jalan Prof. H. Soedarto S.H, Tembalang-Semarang, 50275, Indonesia

Abstract
The types of window, either permanent or impermanent will influence the building thermal profiles. Natural ventilation is one of technique to create passive cooling design in the building. It can improve the quality of indoor air, thermal comfort and reduction of energy consumption for air conditioning. In this present work, a study on the type of natural ventilation and the effect to thermal building performance was conducted. There are two types of natural ventilation as main variable in this study, top hung window and jalousie window. To develop the study, a simulation used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) also conducted. One natural ventilation as outlet also added in the simulation. Based on the data measurement and computer simulation, jalousie window can provide better thermal performance. The range of difference between indoor air temperature on the chamber with jalousie window and chamber with top hung window is 0.2°C to 0.5°C, showing greater heat loss. The average of amount on the indoor air flow also was found 0.0317 m/s higher in the chamber with jalousie window. Particularly in the inlet, it was clear that the velocity of incoming air flow is faster and significantly allowed greater air with lower temperature entered from outside to inside.

Keywords
building thermal performance; CFD simulation; natural ventilation; window types

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/mMbQJTUnzhCx


Comparison of Biogas Productivity in Thermophilic and Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Bioethanol Liquid Waste
Nina Anggita Wardani (a), Nurul Afiqah (b), Muhammad Mufti Azis (a), Wiratni Budhijanto (a*)

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Corresponding Author
Nina Anggita Wardani

Institutions
a) Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University
Jalan Grafika no. 2, Sleman 55281, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia
*wiratni[at]ugm.ac.id
b) Chemical Engineering Department, University Technology Petronas
Persiaran UTP, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

Abstract
Most of anaerobic digesters in Indonesia are run under mesophilic condition because Indonesian climate is sufficiently good to easily maintain mesophilic condition. On the other hand, thermophilic anaerobic digestion offers an advantage of much higher biogas production rate, although it needs more tedious control and energy supply to achieve the thermophilic temperature of 50-60°C. We run laboratory scale experiments to compare process performance of anaerobic digestion of bioethanol liquid waste (vinasse) at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Digested cow manure was used as inoculum. Start-up was conducted with only the inoculum inside the reactors. After the reactor passed through the starvation period, the vinasse feeding was started. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was gradually decreased from 60, 42, until 30 days. Each step of HRT took 7 up to 14 days for stabilization. At the same HRT, thermophilic reactors produced biogas at the rate of four times faster than the mesophilic reactors. The methane concentration in the biogas for thermophilic process was relatively the same as the mesophilic one. With such higher rate of biogas production, the energy cost for thermophilic can be possibly better compensated.

Keywords
Anaerobic Digestion; Thermophilic; Mesophilic; Vinasse

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/ZMamWgyHzQv9


EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL QUANTIFICATION OF DRYING AS PRETREATMENT OF LOCAL BIOMASS FOR ADSORBENTS IN BIOGAS PURIFICATION
Ari Diana Susanti (*), Irfaan Fauzi, Cariessa Salsanofa H.D., Wusana Agung Wibowo, Paryanto

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Corresponding Author
Ari Diana Susanti

Institutions
Department of Chemical Engineering
Universitas Sebelas Maret
Jl. Ir. Sutami No.36A Jebres Surakarta Jawa Tengah 57126

Abstract
Biogas impurities is a major problem related to its heating value and feasibility of conversion to small-scale electrical energy. Adsorption is believed as one of potential method of biogas purification. This process conducted in porous material whose surface active properties, such as activated carbon with an acid or base activator. Laboratory experiments and mathematical quantification were carried out to study the drying process of Gamal (Gliricidia Sepium) stem as a source of biomass that were widely grown in the local area of livestock / biodigester. Determination of the drying process parameters and mass transfer parameters were approached using three drying models, namely (1) Dincer and Dost models, (2) Bi-G correlation approach, and (3) Fick law equation.

Keywords
adsorbent, Bi-G Correlation, biogas, biomass, Dincer and Dost Model, Fick law equations

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/xTg29aEZXHhL


Forest Fire Prone Areas Identification in Gunung Merbabu National Park using Sentinel-2A Imageries
Adiba Kamila Fizaki(a*), Iqbal Putut Ash Shidiq(a*), Rokhmatuloh(a*)

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Corresponding Author
Adiba Kamila Fizaki

Institutions
a*) Department of Geography, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia

Abstract
Land and forest fire in Indonesia has been the annual environmental crisis for the several last decades. The Gunung Merbabu National Park is one of the areas with the most land and forest fire event. The event usually occurred during dry months. On October 2018, the Gunung Merbabu National Park lost 400 hectares of forest area due to the fire events. This fire event caused by both natural and un-natural factor from the burning activities. The fire event will endanger natural biodiversities, damage the animal habitat, and change the environment and ecosystem condition. This study aims to identify the prone area for land and forest fire in the Gunung Merbabu National Park. This study used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) extracted from Sentinel-2A imageries to classify the land-use/land-cover and to detect the burned area in the Gunung Merbabu National Park. The prone area analysis will also consider the accessibility distance from the center of the community activity in surrounding areas

Keywords
Land and forest fire, burned area, NDVI, NBR, Sentinel-2A

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/TdzYmgphbuU9


Lighting System Energy Conservation Simulation at Faculty of Engineering Diponegoro University Library Using Ecotect
Ratih Wahyu Wijayanti (a*), Eddy Prianto (b), Jaka Windarta (a)

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Corresponding Author
Ratih Wahyu Wijayanti

Institutions
a) Master Program of Energy, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia
b) Tropical Architecture Technology Laboratory (TBA), Department of Architecture, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia

Abstract
Global warming is becoming a serious concern day by day. Indonesia still uses a large portion of fossil fuels in electricity generation, has made matters even worse due to carbon emissions. Government through PP No. 70 of 2009 issued an energy conservation policy stating that energy use must be carried out economically and efficiently. The objective of this policy for all sectors of life, not to mention the academic environment. Library spend a lot of energy consumption for support that activites especially in the lighting system. Observations and measurements were performed to see the illuminance of the library because when seen visually very bright. The results are then compared with the standard, whether it meets the minimum threshold or not or even exceed, and how the savings opportunities that can be done. The method that used in this research is data collection, measurement of illuminance, and search for savings opportunities through simulations. Based on methods, a savings opportunity is obtained by reducing the number of lamps used. If this step is applied then obtained savings of up to 514 kWh/year, equivalent to the electricity bill amounting to IDR 462.672.000, - from the lighting system.

Keywords
energy conservation; library; simulation

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/TvCDcEzrqGPV


Mapping of Carbon Footprint at Diponegoro University: Academic Activities
Syafrudin, Badrus Zaman, Alfian Rizky Rizaldianto, Mochamad Arief Budihardjo

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Corresponding Author
Syafrudin Syafrudin

Institutions
Department of Environmental Engineering
Diponegoro University
Indonesia

Abstract
To support the academic activities at Diponegoro University, water is extracted from groundwater by submersible pump. Due to the utilization of the pumps, it requires electricity that increases the consumption of energy. The use of energy at the same time will also raise the amount of CO2 emission produced. The emission is produced from the outcome of the power plants fuel combustion. Moreover, the excessive underground water withdrawal will lead to the decreasing of the land surface. The amount of emission produced during one year is analyzed in a form of carbon footprint with the units of weight of carbon dioxide(kgCO2eq). This research conducted at the Diponegoro University main campus which located at Tembalang, Semarang. The method used was based on IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 2006 and Ministry of Environment 2012 about the Implementation of National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Guidelines. While the analysis of carbon footprint mapping used ArcGIS software. This research showed that the estimated amount of carbon footprint from the clean water sector is 77.623,6733 kgCO2eq/year. Carbon footprint mapping presented three level classifications of carbon footprint, those are lower, middle, and upper which are represented of green, yellow, and red colors. The efforts to reduce carbon footprint produced from the clean water are using a sensor faucet which can reduce carbon footprint by 69,96 %, toilet dual flush, and doing a regular checking of the faucet, urinoir, toilet, the need Standard Operating Procedure, water saving socializations, green open space and use of the central reservoir which can reduce carbon footprint by 16,83%.

Keywords
Academic activities, Electricity, Carbon Footprint

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/RBxHbnTDKL9y


Monitoring results of a 10kWp on-grid photovoltaic system in context of the current regulation for solar rooftops in Indonesia
Daniel Pianka (a*bc), Emerita Setyowati (bc)

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Corresponding Author
Daniel Pianka

Institutions
a) Christliche Fachkräfte International, Stuttgart, Germany
*daniel[at]ukrimuniversity.ac.id
b) Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Computer, Universitas Kristen Immanuel, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
c) Study center for Renewable Energy, Universitas Kristen Immanuel, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract
To fulfill the Paris climate agreement the Indonesian government aims to increase the share of renewable energy. Among others it aims to install 6.4 GWp of photovoltaics (PV) until 2025. However the 2018 installed capacity of total PV is only 52.6 MWp. A new regulation for solar rooftops came into effect in January 2019 to give more security for investments in solar projects. But for a majority of consumers, the implementation of the regulation and an economical operation of a PV system brings many hurdles. A 10 kWp PV on-grid system at UKRIM University is monitored to gain information about energy data, Return of Investment (RoI) and levelized costs of energy (LCOE). Based on the monitoring results, three different consumer types (social institutions, household and offices) are analyzed in respect to profitability. For the PV installation at UKRIM an RoI of 15 years is calculated. The LCOE is calculated as 0.051 USD/kWh and thus higher than the feed-in price of only 0.042 USD/kWh. The current 10 kWp PV system can offset 70% of the electricity demand of the building it is connected to. Nevertheless the most economical size would be only 7 kWp, showing that the most ecological (zero net energy) and the most economical system (fastest RoI) can differ greatly. The slow RoI makes a PV on-grid system economically not interesting for social tariffs. Though households and office buildings can achieve a faster RoI, mainly because of higher electricity prices. The current regulation is economically not attractive enough for buildings with a social electricity tariff. Optimizations of PV systems in interaction with the connected load and the load profile can lead to a faster RoI and lower LCOE, making a PV-rooftop system more attractive.

Keywords
photovoltaics, solar energy, monitoring, renewable energy, RoI, LCOE

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/YpXNnMKqQVTm


Optimization of Organic Waste Composting in Diponegoro University With the Use of Leaves as Bio-activator
Cao Thi Phuong Ly (a), Amelinda Dhiya Farhah (b*), Dian Pertiwi (b), Masyitha Putri Febriani (b)

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Corresponding Author
Amelinda Dhiya Farhah

Institutions
a) Center for Environment Research, Education and Development (CERED), Hanoi, Vietnam
b) Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Tembalang, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia
*amelindadhiya[at]gmail.com

Abstract
The main problems in Integrated Solid Waste Treatment Facility (ISWTF) Diponegoro University is the large amount of waste disposal that must be managed every day, that is 11,82 m3/day. ISWTF Diponegoro University has made effort to reduce the waste disposal, one of them by producing compost from dry leaves waste with adding EM4 activator. Therefore, in this study will be made a organic waste composting of dry leaves waste in ISWTF Diponegoro University by performing the addition of leaves as an bio-activator. The goals of this research is to know the influence of the usage of bio-activator against the content of C-Organic and N-Total from the product of solid compost. Variations made on the study i.e. compost without addition of bio-activator, compost with addition of bio-activator 1 (Terminalia catappa – Switenia mahagoni), bio-activator 2 (Terminalia catappa – Pterocarpus indicus), and bio-activator 3 (Terminalia catappa–Switenia mahagoni–Pterocarpus indicus). The optimum variation for solid compost is variation with bio-activator 2 (Terminalia catappa- Pterocarpus indicus) with the value of C – Organik 24,353% and N – Total 1,227%.

Keywords
Leaves waste; Compost; Bioactivator

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/FJbZHCNvfjUB


Performance Evaluation of Jatibarang Reservoir Due To Land Use Changing
Anik Sarminingsih

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Corresponding Author
Anik Sarminingsih

Institutions
Environmental Department of Diponegoro University

Abstract
Jatibarang Reservoir is located on the Kreo River. This reservoir functions are as a flood controll, water supply and hydroelectric power. The total capacity is around 20.4 million m3. The spillway is designed at elevation +148.9 with a width of 15 m, capacity Q50 = 240 m3 / s, and an emergency spillway at + 151.80 m, width of 60 m with a capacity of 1350 m3 / s. This paper aims to evaluate the performance of reservoirs in their function as flood control, due to land use changes in upstream of the reservoir catchment area. The method which was used is the HEC HMS. Land use map data is used of 2016 and spatial planning map of Central Java province for 2011-2031. The results were obtained the hydrological parameters increase in CN and imperviousness, decrease in initial storage and initial abstraction wich resulting in increased of flood discharge. The impact of this, an emergency spillway that was designed for discharges greater than Q50, must function at discharge that smaller than Q50. Initial design, Q50 water level elevation below +151.8, but with the change in hydrological parameters, water level elevation of Q50 increase up to + 152.2

Keywords
reservoir, performance, land use, HMS

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/eLVFj8z2D7XK


plasma technology in coldstorage to extend the fresh fish safety
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Nur, DEA ; Dr. Ing. Berkah Fajar T K, Dipl-Ing ; Yusuf Hartadi, ST.

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Corresponding Author
yusuf hartadi

Institutions
magister energy Undip

Abstract
Cold storage for storage at low temperatures so that the performance of bacteria and microorganisms that destroy food can be reduced. Maintaining the quality of fresh fish in storage above freezing temperatures requires special treatment so that quality degradation can be delayed and the storage can be extended. The use of ozone as a disinfectant can provide a solution to the problem of decreasing the quality of fresh fish. The combination of an ozone generating plasma machine with cold storage gives a great advantage in storing fish in fresh conditions. Storage of fresh fish at a temperature of 2-8 ° C can reach a shelf life of 15 days and extend the economic life of the fresh fish. The use of ozone generating plasma technology in cold storage can provide space for increased energy efficiency and economic value with the intensity of energy consumption three times less than without the use of plasma technology, meaning that it can provide a three-fold benefit in terms of energy costs per kilogram of fresh fish per day. Increasing the shelf life and decreasing the intensity of energy consumption is very important in the food distribution chain, especially for fresh fish that are very vulnerable to damage.

Keywords
cold storage, plasma, ozone, energy consumption intensity, power consumption

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/FcM4eV8URtyW


Potential Energy Saving In Ligthing Systems (Case Study Of Lecture Hall Diponegoro University Postgraduate Building A)
Ratih Wahyu Wijayanti, Eddy Prianto, and Jaka Windarta

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Corresponding Author
Jaka Windarta

Institutions
Diponegoro University

Abstract
Abstract – The increasing demand for energy from year to year is not balanced with the availability of energy resources. So that the utilization of existing energy must be carried out economically and efficiently according to Goverment Regulation No. 70 of 2009 and no exception in the academic environment. College as a place to gain knowledge, in their daily lives there are teaching and learning activities that require adequate lighting. Observations are made to see if the existing lighting system by the recommendation of the SNI or not and how the savings opportunities that can be done. This study uses a quantitative method by taking samples from 6 rooms which measured their illuminance and compared with the standards of SNI 03-6197-2000. Based on measurements and observations results, the opportunities for savings can be made by adjusting the number of light, set the time lights on, and how long the light is used. If these steps are implemented then we will get savings of up to IDR 569.203.200,- per year for 6 rooms from energy consumption on lighting systems.

Keywords
energy saving, lighting, SNI 03-6197-2000

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/E3JdBrPY9AV4


Potential Use Of Biogas To Initiate Low Carbon Society In Thekelan Village - Indonesia
Mochamad Arief Budihardjo(1), Badrus Zaman(1), Arya Rezagama(2), Novriadi Tri Kurnianto(2), Tia Aulia(3), Bimastyaji Surya Ramadan(1), Shoimatul Fitria(4), Fadel Iqbal Muhammad(1), Siti Yumaroh(1)

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Corresponding Author
Siti Yumaroh

Institutions
1 Department of Environmental Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
3 Department of Chemical Science, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
4 Department of Islamic Economy, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia

Abstract
Thekelan Hamlet is one of the tourist hamlets in Kopeng District, Semarang Regency, Indonesia, which is near the Gunung Merbabu National Park area. Furthermore, the potential of biomass from the livestock and agricultural sectors in this village has not been well utilized. The purpose of this study is to determine the amount of energy use in the Thekelan hamlet, and analyze the potential use of renewable energy (biogas) to substitute conventional electricity. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative combined with IPCC default methods based on a questionnaire from 40 respondents taken randomly. The result of the research shows that the use of energy sources from fuel wood is 9,830 kg and LPG is 215.5. The number of cattle in the hamlet of Thekelan is 70 heads and 34 goats. The largest GHG emissions are generated from the use of fuel in animal husbandry activities with a value of 0.206 Gg CO2e / year while the lowest GHG emissions from LFG utilization activities are 0.008 Gg CO2e / year. The total emissions of all activities are 0.599 Gg CO2e / year. The use of biogas as an alternative energy is known to be able to reduce GHG emissions by 34.3% because the substitution of fuel wood and LPG is transferred to the use of biogas. This research is expected to be a stimulant and basic data for the realization of low carbon energy conscious villages.

Keywords
biogas, Thekelan Village, rural emission, low-carbon society

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/7F62LQVRjJ8t


Solar System and Energy Conservation for a Clean and Sustainable Environment in Indonesia
Yakuttinah Marjan (a) Yusef Ali Yusef Yakubi (b) Yurilla Endah Muliatie (c) Ade Ria Nirmala (d) Muhammad Ali Ahmad (c)

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Corresponding Author
Ade Nirmala

Institutions
Faculty economics and business University of Airlangga

Abstract
Nowadays, many large cities in Indonesia. Such as Jakarta, Pekanbaru and Palangkaraya, experience a high air pollution rate. Particularly, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK) stated that the average annual concentration of PM 2.5 particulates in Jakarta turns out to be far beyond the national ambient air quality standard. Unfortunately, recent data indicated that in every one (Particulate Matter) PM 2.5 air quality monitoring station in Jakarta, the annual average is 34.57 ug / m3. Basically, the Republic of Indonesia Government Regulation No. 41/1999 stipulates the annual PM 2.5 quality standard at 15 ug / m3.In other words these annual averages display a serious pollution problem in some major Indonesian cities. Other cases that added pollution problems took place in Pekanbaru and Palangkaraya cities which witnessed rainforest fires. Therefore, there appear a need for a clean and inexhaustible source of energy since the use of alternative and efficient energy resources can serve a purpose. This study aims at illustrating some advantages of using solar system to achieve a clean and sustainable environment by following certain steps and recommend specific policies regarding efficient use alternative renewable resources. Findings of this study might be of interest to government and non-government environment policy makers in addition to development activists and academics.

Keywords
Air Pollution, Clean and sustainable Environment

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/YvEVwfdPLcnN


Taperless Type Blade Design with Naca 5513 Airfoil for Wind Turbine 500 TSD
Eflita Yohana (a*), Nazaruddin Sinaga (a), Ismoyo Haryanto (a), Rahmad Imam Taufik (a), Eka Dharmawan (a)

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Corresponding Author
Eflita Yohana

Institutions
(a) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Diponegoro University
Jalan Prof. H. Soedarto, S.H., Tembalang, Kota Semarang, Jawa Tengah 50275
*Email: efnan2003[at]gmail.com

Abstract
The utilization of wind energy in Indonesia is still low because the average wind speed in Indonesia is low. The design of the HAWT using a NACA airfoil which has a high C / Cd value and produces 500 W of power at wind speeds of 1 m/s up to 11 m/s. The research was conducted in 3 stages. First, the calculation stage to determine the radius, chord and twist of the blade. Second, the initial design stage of the blades is simulated to determine the NACA airfoil that is used and to know the coefficient of performance and power produced. Third, the stage of designing the 3D blade design. The design results show that the HAWT blades with NACA 5513 airfoil taperless type with radius of 0.9 m on the airfoil simulation produced a higher Cl / Cd value with 152.73 when α = 4 °. In the Cp simulation for TSR, the Cp value reaches 20% in TSR 2 up to 10. Meanwhile, in the power wind speed (P - v) simulation, the power generated reaches 500 W at wind speeds of 11 m/s and angular velocity 263 up to 1000 rpm.

Keywords
Blade Design; Taperless; NACA 5513; Wind Turbine

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/qvN9JXya34gf


TECHNO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS SMALL BIODIESEL PLANT FROM PALM SLUDGE OIL
Arie Wicaksono, Widayat, Singgih Saptadi

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Corresponding Author
Arie Wicaksono

Institutions
Magister Program of Energy, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Semarang –Indonesia
Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang - Indonesia
Industrial Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang – Indonesia

Abstract
The biodiesel production of Palm Sludge Oil uses small-scale production machines (50-70 litters) obtained 91.30% yield. Biodiesel is able to replace diesel oil (HSD) as a fuel boiler for industrial use based on the quality parameters analyzed including methyl ester content, calorie value, flash point, viscosity and density. The production scheme carried out economics analysis includes Net Present value, Internal Rate of Return (compare to bank interests rate) and simple payback period shows this business feasible to be applied

Keywords
Palm Sludge oil, Biodiesel, Techno Economic

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/v6UZG9LmbyNX


The effect of molasses addition as binder on properties of dry cow dung pellet
Ari Diana Susanti (a*), Wusana Agung Wibowo(b), Paryanto(c)

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Corresponding Author
Ari Diana Susanti

Institutions
Department of Chemical Engineering
Universitas Sebelas Maret
Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A Surakarta, Indonesia

Abstract
Indonesia has abundant availability of low calorie-density waste biomass, such as dry cow dung. Improving of this low properties is needed to fulfil the requirements as renewable fuel in thermochemical process. Biomass pelletizing is a promising technology to improve the physical and thermal properties of biomass. Binders may be employed to improve the particle adhesion, compressive strength, and energy content of densified biomass. In addition, molasses as abundant waste of sugar industries is possible to be used as binder. This study dealed with the influence of molasses addition on physical, chemical, and thermal properties of dry cow dung pellet. Molasses addition of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% by weight from total mass of mixture were then used as raw material of pellet production by hydrolic press machine with 5 tons pressure for one minute pressing time. We found that, the heating value of loose dry cow dung was 4122 kcal/kg and the addition of molasses will reduce the heating value of biomass mixture by 3% to 5%. The addition of molasses increase the water content, ash content, and fixed carbon content of mixture by 2.5% to 5.8%, 0.8% to 2.0%, and 4.0% to 2.6%, respectively, but decrease volatile matter content by 4.0% to 6.0%. Pelletization of these mixtures reduced the water content by only 1% to 4%, while increased volatile matter content by 1% to 8%. Therefore, the heating values were slightly increase by 0.2% to 0.6%. In term of pellet density, the addition of molasses will reduce its density to 1.11, 1.04, and 1.02 g/cm3, respectively, compared to 1.17 g/cm3 for 0% molasses. Therefore, significant reduction on energy densities were found to be 7%, 14%, and 17%, respectively, compared to 4828 kcal/dm3 for 0% molasses. Furthermore, the addition of molasses were signicantly reduce the compressive strength of pellet.

Keywords
binder cow dung molasses pellet thermochemical

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/HEFngTKeY8Vq


The Effectiveness of Biogas Method from Rice Husks Waste: Liquid Anaerobic Digestion and Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion
Syafrudin Syafrudin (a*), Winardi Dwi Nugraha (a), Hashfi Hawali Abdul Matin (b), Erica Suryaning Saputri (a), Budiyono Budiyono (c)

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Corresponding Author
Hashfi Hawali Abdul Matin

Institutions
a) Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, 50275 Semarang, Indonesia
*udin_syaf[at]yahoo.com
b) Environmental Science, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Sebelas Maret University, 57126 Surakarta, Indonesia
c) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, 50275 Semarang, Indonesia

Abstract
Liquid Anaerobic digestion (L-AD) generally was operated in the total solid between 0 until 15%, while the Solid- State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD) operated at total solid higher than 15%. In this research, waste of rice husk were evaluated to determine the effect of biogas production of Liquid Anaerobic Digestion (L-AD) and Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion (SS-AD). This experiment was operated in batch system in the laboratory scale of anaerobic digestions and at room temperature, with C/N ratio was set at 25oC. Total solids (TS) was varied from 5, 7, 9, 19, 21 and 23%. Pretreatment of rice husk was needed to lower the high lignin content in the material, with added sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Biogas produced was measured by using the method of water transfer every two days for 60 days. The results showed the chemical pretreatment of sodium hydroxide increase the production of biogas, with the highest yield biogas difference between LAD condition and SS-AD by 14%. The highest yield biogas production in rice husk was obtained at TS 19%, with a productivity volume of 935.5 ml. Specific biogas production in TS 5, 7, 9, 19, 21 and 23% was 57; 56.64; 45.36; 24.62; 15.15; and 12.45 ml/g TS. The concentration of total solid to L-AD higher than SS-AD conditions. Further research needs to be studied is to optimize the yield of biogas with SS-AD system.

Keywords
Biogas; Rice Husk; Concentration of Total Solids; Liquid Anaerobic Digestion; Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion

Topic
Energy Conservation and Efficiency

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/VPJnNrdTvZBy


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