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Abstract Topic: Animal reproduction

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ANIMAL REPRODUCTION STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
Danilda Hufana-Duran, Ph.D.

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Corresponding Author
DANILDA HUFANA-DURAN

Institutions
Scientist I and Head, Reproduction and Physiology Section
Philippine Carabao Center
Email Ad: dhduran[at]clsu.edu.ph or danildahd[at]yahoo.com

Abstract
Animal reproduction is an integral component for a sustainable livestock production. Enhancing the reproduction potential of animals without compromising the welfare would lead towards sustainable animal production. Careful attention adopting technological interventions would result to efficient performance and guarantees profit and sustainability. In the tropical environment, the effect of heat stress, food and water scarcity during summer affects the reproduction performance in most livestock species. Low expression of estrus, poor libido, incidence of abortion especially during prolonged exposure to direct sunlight, and embryonic death are among the problems that compromised reproductive efficiency. Through advance reproductive biotechnologies and management innovations and interventions, these problems could be controlled. The application of reproductive biotechnology tools such as estrus synchronization (ES), artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer (ET) through multiple ovulation and in vivo collection of embryos, in-vitro embryo production (IVEP) and cryopreservation, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce the desired breed and sex of animal, and other reproductive biotechnologies that enhances reproduction potential are important innovations that can address specific needs and purpose for animal reproduction. The strategies, innovations, and important practices in the application of these reproductive tools and interventions are presented and discussed considering the welfare of the animals for a sustainable livestock production in a tropical environment.

Keywords
AI, ET, IVF, SCNT, biotechnologies, livestock production, reproduction, tropical environment

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/j8euHKQXkEyc


Cleavage Ability of Bali Cow In Vitro Embryos of Bali Cattle Based on Different Reproductive Status of Ovary 48 Hours After Fertilization Process
Hasbi Hasbi1, Herry Sonjaya1, Sri Gustina2*

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Corresponding Author
Hasbi Hasbi

Institutions
1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
2Department of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Animal husbandry and Fisheries, Universitas Sulawesi Barat, Jl. Prof. Dr. Baharuddin Lopa, Tande Timur, Majene, 91412
*srigustinasain[at]gmail.com

Abstract
This study aims to determine the ability of in vitro embryo cleavage of Bali cattle 48 hours after the fertilization process based on different ovarian reproductive status. Ovaries from abattoirs are grouped into four categories: ovaries without corpus luteum and dominant follicles (-CL and -FD), without corpus luteum and with dominant follicles (-CL and + FD), with corpus luteum and without dominant follicle (+ CL and -FD), and with corpus luteum and dominant follicles (+ CL and + FD). After that, oocytes are collected by slicing and only oocytes with a cytoplasmic are homongent and have compact cumulus cells used in the study. The selected oocytes are then matured in an incubator of 5% CO2, a temperature of 38.5 °C for 24 hours. After maturation, in vitro fertilization was carried out using TALP media with a final concentration of spermatozoa 1.5 x 106 spermatozoa/ml. Oocytes 5-6 after fertilization were washed 3 times using CR1aa media then cultured in 5% CO2 incubator, temperature 38.5 °C for 48 hours. After 48 hours the culture was evaluated for the ability of embryo cleavage. The results showed that the number of embryos capable of cleave to stage 2 cells were not significantly different (P>0.05) in all treatments (1.64 ± 0.38% vs 8.00 ± 0.90% vs. 4.85 ± 0.96% vs. 8.22 ± 1.86%), while the number of embryos capable of cleave reached stage 4 cells (11.48 ± 0.82% vs 24.00 ± 2.64% vs. 24.27 ± 2.23% vs. 10.96 ± 0.69%), 8 cells (11.48 ± 1.15% vs 8.00 ± 1.07% vs. 26.21 ± 2.79 % vs 15.07 ± 1.40%), 16 cells (0.00 ± 0.00% vs 1.33 ± 0.38% vs. 4.85 ± 0.76% vs. 1.37 ± 0.38%), and the ability of embryos cleavage (24.59 ± 11.60% vs 41.33 ± 24.32% vs. 60.19 ± 22.45 % vs. 35.62 ± 10.83%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the ovaries with corpus luteum and without dominant follicles (+ CL and – FD). Conclusion, the ability of embryo division to reach 4 cells, 8 cells, and 16 cells after 48 hours culture was higher in the ovaries with corpus luteum and without dominant follicles (+ CL and – FD).

Keywords
Embryos cleavage, ovarian reproductive status, Bali cattle.

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/R8kCHDWXp23L


Comparative Study of Feed Conversion Ratio and Digestibility Between Native and Crossbreed Cattle
Masturi, M., Abd. Latief Toleng and Muhammad Yusuf

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Corresponding Author
Sri Purwanti

Institutions
Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia

Abstract
Artificial insemination technique has being applied in crossing native breed (Bali) cattle of Indonesia with some exotic breeds. The crossbred offspring has a higher body weight in compared to the native breed. It is not known whether the different of body was due to the different of feed conversion ratio or digestibility of the animals. This study was conducted to compare the feed conversion ratio and digestibility between Bali (native breed) cattle and its crossbred with the exotic breeds. Two breeds (5 Bali and 5 Crossbred) young male, 1.5 – 2.5 years old, were used in this study. The animals were kept in an individual barn for 3 months and fed with rice straw (40 %) and concentrate (60 %). Body weight were measured every 2 weeks and feed consumption was measured every day. Feed conversion ratio were calculated. At the end of the experiment, the feces were collected and digestibility of protein, fat and crude fiber were measured. Daily gain and feed consumption ratio of Bali cattle was significantly lower (P<0.05) in compared to those in crossbred cattle (0.43 vs 0.77 kg and 6.65 vs 10.57 kg, respectively). Therefore, the feed conversion ratio was not significantly (P>0.05) different between the two groups (17.4 vs 14.99). There were no significant different (P>0.05) in the digestibility of crude protein, fat and crude fiber between the two breeds (73.62 vs 76.76, 64.7 vs 68.91 and 50.37 vs 56.25, respectively). It can be concluded that although body weight gain in Bali cattle was significantly lower in compared to that in crossbred cattle, however, feed conversion ratio and digestibility were not significantly different between the two breeds.

Keywords
Bali cattle, Crossbreed cattle, Feed Conversion Ratio, Digestibility

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/z8Ltubdxhgrn


CONCEPTION RATE OF BALI COWS INSEMINATED WITH SEMEN OF THE BULL SUPPLEMENTED WITH MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF POWDER BLOCK
Hasrin1, A.L. Toleng2*, M. Yusuf2, Sahiruddin2, Hasbi2

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Corresponding Author
Abdul Latief Toleng

Institutions
1Postgraduate of Animal Production Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University
2Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University

Abstract
Lower conception rate of cows in the tropics might be affected by low quality of semen collected from bulls consumed low quality food. This study was conducted to evaluate the conception rate of Bali cows inseminated with semen of the bulls supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) powder blocks. There were 26 Bali cows 3-4 years of age, non pregnant and having corpus luteum, used in this study. All animals were injected with 2 ml of PGF2α (juramate) to induce and to synchronize the estrous. They were divided into 2 groups, group 1 (P1, n=16) were inseminated with semen of bulls supplemented with MOL powder blocks. Group 2 (P0, n=10) were inseminated with commercially available semen. All cows were artificially inseminated 48 hours after the PGF injection. Pregnancy diagnosis were perfomed by rectal palpation 60 days after the insemination. The mean diffents between the two treatments were analyzed by chi-squared analysis. All animals in the two treatments came in oestrus after the PGF injection. Thirteen (13) out of 16 cows (81%) and 7 out of 10 cows (70%) detected in pregnant, respectively for P1 and P0. Although statistical analysis showed that there was not different between the two treatments (P>0.05), but economically, the treatment of P1 could increase 11% of conception rate. It can be concluded that the supplementation of MOL powder block could increase the conception rate of Bali cows.

Keywords
Bali cows, Moringa oliefera, semen quality, conception rate

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/X7qwDkj4AebM


Efforts to Improve Reproductive Efficiency in Dairy Heifers Experiencing Delayed Puberty Using Heatsynch Method
Andi Fausiah, Abd. Latief Toleng, Muhammad Yusuf, Sahiruddin

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Corresponding Author
Andi Fausiah

Institutions
Faculty of Animal Husbandry, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar

Abstract
The aim of this study was to find out the application of Heatsynch method in overcome the delayed puberty of dairy heifers that suffered from infertility. This study was conducted at small dairy farms in Sub-district of Cendana, Enrekang Regency. The study was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, a total of 50 dairy heifers were used to determine the percentage of heifers that experienced delay in puberty. In the second stage, 20 dairy heifers with delayed puberty were divided into two groups. The first group, 10 dairy heifers were treated with Heatsynch and the other 10 dairy heifers were used as negative control (without Heatsynch). For positive control, 10 dairy heifers that did not suffered from delayed puberty were used. In Heatsynch treated dairy heifers, GnRH were injected on day-0, followed by PGF2α, estradiol injections on day-7 and day-8, respectively, and inseminated artificially on day-9. The results of this study showed that the percentage of dairy heifers that experienced in delayed puberty in Sub-district of Cendana, Enrekang Regency was 44%. The mean age at first pregnant after treated with Heatsynch was 545 days, shorter than those heifers in control negative (644 days). The percentage of dairy heifers become pregnant after treating with Heatsynch was 80%, higher than those untreated delayed puberty heifers (50%). It can be concluded that the incidence of delayed puberty dairy heifers was still high. Heatsynch method can be one way that can be used to overcome the problem of delayed puberty in dairy heifers and to improve reproductive efficiency.

Keywords
Dairy heifers, Puberty, Heatsynch, Reproductive efficiency

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/AunqvCaf4UXE


Estrous and pregnancy rate responses of postpartum Bali cattle to concentrate supplementation with different protein levels of rice-straw as basal ration
Herry Sonjaya1*, Lellah Rahim1, Dwi Kesuma Sari2, Agustina Abdullah3, Sri Gustina4, and Hasbi Hasbi1*

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Corresponding Author
Herry Sonjaya

Institutions
*Corresponding Author: Herry Sonjaya, E-mail: sonjayaherry[at]gmail.com, Hasbi Hasbi
E-mail: hasbi_fapetunhas[at]yahoo.com
1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia. 2Program Study of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Medical, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia. 3Department of Socioeconomic, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia. 4Division of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal Science and Fisheries, Sulawesi Barat University, Majene 91412, Indonesia.

Abstract
ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the research is to determine the effect of concentrate with different protein level rice straw as basal ration on the percentage of pregnancy rate of Bali cattle maintained on traditional farming system Methods. The research was divided into two experiments. First experiment: a number of 46 cows divided into 4 treatment groups. Each group respectively protein level 0%, 10%, 12%, and 14%. Experiment 2: a number of 324 Bali cows postpartum got concentrate supplementation with different protein levels were divided into three groups, each got a protein level of 10%; 12%, and 14%. The rice straw diet given ad-libitum and concentrate as much as 1 kg per head per day for two months. Livestock that appears estrous after feeding directly mated naturally and partially performed artificial insemination. Pregnancy examinations carried rectal palpation and partly validated with ultrasound. Results: Estrous respon in the first experiment not significantly affected by supplementation of concentrate with protein level for 10-14%. In contrast, estrous intensity was obviously visible in group treatment with 14% protein level. The supplementation of protein level in concentrate increased natural estrous 66.05% and natural mating generated 91.65% of pregnancy rate. However, 43.95% cows were artificially inseminated generating 81.63% of pregnancy rate.It-s conclude that upplementation of concentrate for feed Bali cows with rice straw as basal in the dry season caused increasing the percentage of postpartum estrous and highest of pregnancy rate.

Keywords
Keywords: Bali Cows Postpartum, Estrous Response, Pregnancy Rate, Concentrate, Protein Supplements

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/NKvHf2atBMbj


INCREASING MILK PRODUCTION IN DAIRY COWS BY A SUPPLEMENTATION OF MORINGA OLEYFERA LEAF POWDER BLOCK
H. Rika1, A.L. Toleng2*, M. Yusuf2, Sahiruddin2, A. Ako2

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Corresponding Author
Abdul Latief Toleng

Institutions
1Postgraduate of Animal Production Technology, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia.
2Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia.

Abstract
Lower milk productivity of dairy cows might be correlated with the low milk consumption in Indonesia. This problem might be adversely affected by low quality and quantity of food intake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the milk production of dairy cows supplemented with “Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) powder block”. There were 40 suckling Frisient Holland dairy cows used in this study. All animals were fed with roughage of a mix of natural with elephant grasses, rice bran and soybean meal. They were divided into two groups of treatments. The first group supplemented with MOL powder block 500 g/head/day for 21 days and the second group was remained without a supplementation. Hand milking was performed twice a day. The daily milk production were compared between the two treatments by using student-s t_test. The supplementation of “Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) powder block significantly (P<0.01) increased milk production in compared to that without supplementation (10.75 vs 8.17 litre/head/day). This study concluded that milk production could be increased by a supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) powder block.

Keywords
dairy, milk production, moringa oleifera

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/dRXupgnN9tYb


Maturation of Sheep Oocytes with Antioxidant α-Tocopherol which are activated by Parthenogenesis
Sri Gustina1, Hasbi Hasbi2, Iman Supriatna3, Mohamad Agus Setiadi3*

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Corresponding Author
Sri Gustina

Institutions
1Department of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, Universitas Sulawesi Barat, Jl. Prof. Dr. Baharuddin Lopa, Tande Timur, Majene 91412, Indonesia
2Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
3Division of Reproduction and Obstetrics, Department of Veterinary Clinic, Reproduction, and Pathology, Bogor Agricultural University, Jl. Agatis, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
*E-mail: setiadi03[at]yahoo.com

Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the competence of sheep oocytes which are matured with antioxidant α-tocopherol by parthenogenesis activation. Oocytes from slaughterhouse were matured in tissue culture medium (TCM)-199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10 IU/ml pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG), 10 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), 1 µg/ml estradiol, 50 µg/ml gentamycin, and with or without 150 µM α-tocopherol supplementation, then were parthenogenetically activated by exposing to 5 µM calcium ionophore for 5 min, and in medium containing 5 µg/ml cytochalasin B for 4 h. Furthermore oocytes were cultured in TCM 199 + 10% FBS either with or without supplementation of 150 μM α-tocopherol. Result of this experiment revealed that the percentages of activated oocytes with supplementation of 150 µM α-tocopherol only in maturation medium (63.41%) significantly higher (P<0.01) than the control group (50.00%) and the supplemented only in culture medium (51.02%). Furthermore, no significantly difference (P>0.05) in the number of oocytes with 1 pronucleus (PN), 2 PN, and more than 2 PN. It is concluded that the supplementation of 150 μM α-tocopherol on the maturation medium could also increase the percentage of activated oocytes optimally.

Keywords
Antioxidant α-tocopherol, in vitro maturation, ovine oocytes, parthenogenesis

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/3HDfycUwgVvJ


Optimum Time of Artificial Insemination in Simmental Cross Cow
Firmiaty, S.1, M. idrus1, M. Amir2 and A.L. Toleng3

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Irfan1 Said

Institutions
1Agriculture Faculty, Bosowa University, Makassar, 2Department of Livestock Services, Bone, 3Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

Abstract
Abstract. Artificial insemination (AI) conducted not at the optimum time might cause the low conception rate in beef cattle kept under extensive and semi extensive condition. The aim of this research was to evaluate of the optimum time of artificial insemination which shows a high conception rate in Simmental cross cows kept under semi extensive condition. There were 75 Simmental cross cows kept under semi extensive by farmers at Bone District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. They were divided into 3 groups of 25 cows. Group 1 (G1) was inseminated 12 h after the onset of estrus, Group 2 (G2) 24 h after the onset of estrus and Group 3 (G3) 36 h after the onset of estrus. All cows inseminated using Bali bull frozen semen by 1 inseminator. The cows which showed estrus after the AI were inseminated. The variables observed were Conception Rate (CR) and Service per conception (S/C). The significant different between group were analyzed by chi square analysis. Conception rate in G1 group was significantly (P<0.05) lower (56%) in compared to those in G2 (80%) and G3 (80%), respectively. Similar response was detected for S/C. Service per Conception in G1 group was significantly (P<0.05) higher (1.92) in compared to those in G2 (1.32) and G3 (1.38), respectively. It can be concluded that optimum time for artificial insemination in Simmental cross breed cows was 24 h after the onset of oestrus.

Keywords
conception rate, service per conception, optimum time of insemination, Simmental cross

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/Vrm8qRKx9FY3


Relationship between serum progesterone concentration on the day 6th after artificial insemination and conception rate in dairy cow
Su Thanh Long, Le Xuan Thuong, Ho Viet Nam, Le Tien Dam, Pham Xuan Bach

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Yusuf

Institutions
Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Vietnam

Abstract
This study was carried out in Vinh Tuong district, Vinh Phuc province from February 20th 2019 to May 20th 2019 to evaluate the relationship between serum progesterone (P4) concentration and conception rate in dairy cows. In this experiment, 94 dairy cows were synchronized by Ovsynch plus progesterone-releasing intravaginal device and received fixed - time artificial insemination (FTAI). Blood samples were obtained to measure serum progesterone concentration on the 6th day after FTAI. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on the 60th day later after AI by rectal palpation and divided into five groups according to the different P4 concentration threshold (Group 1: P4<1 ng/ml; Group2: 1≤P4<2 ng/ml; Group 3: 2≤P4<3 ng/ml; Group 4: 3≤P4<4 ng/ml and Group 5: P4≥4 ng/ml). The result showed that average progesterone concentration recorded 3.638 ± 0.233ng/ml (fluctuated from 0.0503 to 10.755 ng/ml), the higher P4 concentration, the more dairy cows get pregnancy (P<0.05). The conception rate of dairy cows of the group 5 was found to be the highest one among the chosen five groups, slightly higher than that of Group 4 and Group 3, with the rate of 64.52%, 60.87% and 42.11%, respectively. The figure given for Group 1 was the lowest, with only 22.22% and slightly lower than the corresponding figure of Group 2 (25%).

Keywords
Progesterone, cow, pregnancy

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/YzFGjV92vn7J


Reproductive performance of dairy cows in a smallholder farm
Muhammad Yusuf1*, Abd. Latief Toleng1, Sahiruddin1

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Yusuf

Institutions
1) Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

Abstract
The aim of this study was to know the reproductive performance of dairy cows in a smallholder farm. The study was conducted in a dairy tie stall housing system farm with herd size of 30 dairy cattle in Enrekang Regency, Indonesia. A total of 25 dairy cows was observed during the study period. Reproductive parameters used in the present study were service per conception, interval from calving to conception, duration of pregnancy, and calving interval. The result of this study showed that out of 25 dairy cows observed, 20 of them become pregnant after one or more insemination. The average (± standard deviation; SD) duration of pregnancy was 273.40 ± 5.38 days after 1.55 ± 0.76 inseminations. After calving, 13 cows (65.0%) become pregnant after repeated inseminations (3.00 ± 2.24) with interval from calving to conception, duration of pregnancy, and calving interval were 254.31 ± 187.78 days, 275.54 ± 4.46 days, and 529.85 ± 189.32 days, respectively. For the third pregnancy, out of 13 dairy cows, only six cows (46%) become pregnant after repeated inseminations with service per conception was 2.00 ± 0.89 times. The interval from calving to conception, duration of pregnancy, and calving interval were 129.17 ± 46.24 days, 275.00 ± 4.98 days, and 404.17 ± 48.87 days, respectively. The overall service per conception times, interval from calving to conception, duration of pregnancy, and calving interval of dairy cows in a smallholder farm were 2.05 ± 1.49 times, 214.79 ± 166.35 days, 274.51 ± 5.10 days, and 490.16 ± 167.81 days, respectively. In conclusion, reproductive performance of dairy cows in a smallholder farm decreased after first calving as well as the number of cows become pregnant.

Keywords
Dairy cows, reproductive performance, smallholder farm

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/Zj8YaDBTHM3A


SHOWER REDUCED HEAT STRESS IN BALI CATTLE UNDER A TROPICAL CONDITION OF INDONESIA
Toleng, A.L. and Yusuf, M

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Corresponding Author
Abdul Latief Toleng

Institutions
Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia, Makassar 90245

Abstract
Although Bali (native breed of Indonesia) cattle has a high adaptation ability to tropical conditions, but this breed of cattle was reported to be heat stressed under the high environmental temperature. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of shower on the physiological responses of Bali cattle under a high environmental condition. Two groups of 6 young Bali males were used in this study. The animlas were kept under invidual barns and fed with rice straw supplemented with rice bran and urea multinutrients molasses block. The first group (control group) was kept without shower and the second group (treatment group) was treated with an individual shower located about 0.6 m above of each animal. The application of shower was done for 30 minutes three times a day (9.00, 12.00 and 15.00 hr) for 6 consecutive days. The physiological responses (body temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate), water intake and ambiet temperature were measured at 05.00, 09.00, 13.00, 17.00, 21.00 and 01.00 hr. Mean anbient temperature at 05.00, 09.00, 13.00, 17.00, 21.00 and 01.00 hr were 20.50ºC, 32.17ºC, 37.33ºC, 30.00ºC, 21.67ºC, and 20.33ºC, respectively. Treatment group showed a significant (P<0.05) lower body temperature during day time (09.00, 13.00 and 17.00 hr) in compared to those in the control group (38.1ºC vs 38.5ºC). During the night (21.00, 01.00 and 05.00 hr), there were no significant different of body temperature between the two treatments (38.0 ºC vs 38.1ºC). Similar respon was detected for respiration rate which showed a significantly lower (P<0.01) during day time in the treatment group in compare to those in the control group (18.1 Vs 20.8 time/minute). The effect of shower on pulse rate was significantly lower (P<0.01) only at 13.00 and 17.00 hr. Mean pulse rate in the treatment and control groups during these times were 64.3 and 70.2 time/min, respectively. Mean daily water consumption was significandly (P<01) lower in the treatment group in compared to those in the control group (12.1 vs 19.3 litre/day). It can be concluded that the application of shower could reduce heat stress of Bali cattle during the hight ambient temperature.

Keywords
Bali cattle, heat stress, physiological respons, ambient temperature

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/jca3PNbJXCQe


Strategies to Increase growth Early Embryo Stages of Bovine in achieving Blastocysts In Vitro
E Damayanti 1, H Sonjaya 2, H Hasbi 2, S Baco 2

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Corresponding Author
Erni Damayanti

Institutions
1Postgraduate Student of Agricultural Study Program of Hasanuddin University Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan KM 10 Makassar 90245, Indonesia.
2Departement of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Hasanuddin University Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan KM 10 Makassar 90245, Indonesia

Abstract
The growth of bovine embryos in vitro begins with fertilization is the unification of male and female gametes in the fertilization medium into zygote. After unification, the embryo will cleavage from two cells until they reach a blastocyst which can be transferred to the recipient. One of indicator the success of bovine embryo culture in vitro is the ability of the embryo from an early stage of development to reach blastocyst. To achieve this aim an embryo enhancement strategy is needed to reach the Blastocyst stage. Various strategies that can be carried out for the improvement include the use of an appropriate maturation medium, removed cumulus cells and the addition of hormones to the culture medium. The use of CR1aa medium in culture medium can reach 27.0% of embryos that reach blastosis of total fertilized oocytes. removal of cumulus cells after 48 hours of fertilization can increase the development of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage. In addition, by increasing the TGFβ hormone 1 ng / ml plus bFGF 50 ng / ml can increase the levels of 2 cells by 314 reaching the blastocyst level of 30 embryos.

Keywords
Bovine, Embryo, cleavage, Blastocyst

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/zRU4EGYDpjy6


SUPPLEMENTATION OF ARABIAN JUJUBE (Ziziphus spina Christi) LEAF EXTRACT AS EXTENDER MATERIAL ON THE QUALITY OF BALI BULL SEMEN
Sahiruddin1,3, Widjiati2 , Abdul Latief Toleng3 , Muhammad Yusuf3 , Masturi3

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Corresponding Author
Sri Purwanti

Institutions


1. Student of Doctoral Program in Veterinary Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
2. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
3. Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

Abstract
Semen is subject to experience a decrease in the quality including motility of the sperms. Decreasing the quality of semen begins during collecting process and continues at the processing stage. Low quality of semen will have an impact on the low fertilization rate, so that efforts are needed to maintain the quality of semen. This is thought to be caused by oxidative reactions that are triggered by free radical activity. Some active ingredients in the Arabian jujube leaf are thought to function as natural antioxidants. This study aimed to determine the effect of supplementation of Arabian jujube leaf extracts (Ziziphus spina Christy) on sperms motility in an effort to maintain the quality of Bali bull fresh semen. This study was conducted at the Laboratory of Animal Reproduction; Semen Processing Unit, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar. The Arabian jujube leaf extracts was added in the extender at three different treatments; P1 (1%), P2 (3%), P3 (5%) and P0 (control). The results of this study showed that there were different motility of the sperms after supplementing the extender with Arabian jujube leaf extracts. The sperms motility of Bali bull semen at concentration of 5% during five days equilibration at 5ºC had higher than 3%, 1%, and control, respectively (50.0 vs. 48.7, 43.8, and 46.3%). It can be concluded that supplementation of Arabian jujube leaf extract in the extender material could maintain the quality of Bali bull semen.

Keywords
Arabian jujube leaf, Extender, Semen, Bali bull

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/Za4EjzMYWHyb


The Effect of Heatsynch Protocol on Repeat Breeding Dairy Cows
Dhian Ramadhanty, Muhammad Yusuf*, Abd. Latief Toleng, Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Sahiruddin

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Corresponding Author
Andi Fausiah

Institutions
Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia

Abstract
The aim of this study was to know the incidence of repeat breeding in dairy cows and to know the effectiveness of Heatsynch protocol on dairy repeat breeding cows. The study was conducted in two stages. The first stage, all dairy cows were recorded and clinically examined through palpation per rectum and for their reproductive statuses. Parameter measured in the study was the incidence of repeat breeding. The second stage of the study was that the repeat breeder cows subjected to Heatsynch protocol for estrus induction. The protocol was GnRH injection on day-0, followed by PGF2α, estradiol injections on day-7 and day-8, respectively, and inseminated artificially on day-9. The results of the study indicated that the incidence of repeat breeding was 41.6%. The Heatsynch protocol was successfully increase the number of pregnant repeat breeder cows; 75%, higher compared to untreated repeat breeder cows; 20%. It can be concluded that high incidence of repeat breeding in dairy cows. Heatsynch protocol can be used to treat repeat breeder cows and improve the reproductive efficiency.

Keywords
Repeat breeding, Heatsynch, Dairy cows, Reproductive efficiency

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/c3F8MjRTgBQN


The Effect of Super Ovulation and Feed Protein Level on Sow Reproduction Performances
Mien Theodora Rossesthellinda. Lapian1), Abraham F. Pendong1), Cathrien A. Rahasia1), Zulkifli Poli 1), and Vonny Rita Wisye Rawung 1)

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Corresponding Author
Mien Theodora R Lapian

Institutions
Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado – Indonesia

Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of providing super ovulation induction and feed protein levels before mating on sow reproductive performances. Eighteen gilts, weighted 100-107 kg were used in this research. There were two types of hormones used as super ovulation agents in this study, namely PMSG (Follig on, Intervet, North Holland) and hCG (Chorulon, Intervet, North Holland). Meanwhile, prostaglandins (Prosolvin, Intervet, North Holland) was used for estrus simultaneous. This research was conducted using a completely randomized design with a factorial model of 2 x 3, where as the first treatment factor was the super ovulation hormone PMSG + hCG with two levels, namely zero injection of hormones (as a control) and hormone injections; and the second treatment factor was the level of feed protein with three levels of administration, namely: 14%, 16% and 18% level of feed protein, respectively. Each treatment combination was repeated 3 (three) times. The variables observed were the gestation period of sow, the weight of sow at the end of pregnancy, and the birth litter size. The results showed that the treatment had a very significant effect on the gestation period of sows and its body weight at the end of gestation, but there was no significant difference in the litter size of birth. It is concluded, the reproductive performance of sows through super ovulation and feed protein level before mating, were able to shorten the length of gestation, improve the body weight of pregnant sows and litter size born.

Keywords
Super ovulation, feed protein level, sow

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/D2Awfmch7dpk


THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HEATSYNCH METHOD IN DAIRY COWS WITH ABNORMALITIES OF REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN
Musdalifa Mansur, Muhammad Yusuf, Abd. Latief Toleng, Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Sahiruddin

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Corresponding Author
Andi Fausiah

Institutions
Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia

Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of abnormalities of reproductive organs, and to determine the effectiveness of Heatsynch method in dairy cows that suffered from abnormalities of reproductive organs. This study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Panette, Cendana Sub-district, Enrekang Regency and the study was conducted in two stages. The first stage; a total of 77 dairy cows were used to determine the incidence of reproductive organs abnormalities. The second stage; a total of 20 dairy cows that suffered from reproductive organs abnormalities were divided into two groups. The first 10 dairy cows were treated with Heatsynch, and the other 10 dairy cows were used as a negative control (without Heatsynch treatment). For positive control, 10 dairy cows that did not suffered from abnormalities of reproduction organs were used. The results of this study showed that the incidence of reproductive organs abnormalities was 36.4% and the highest of abnormalities was uterine disorders at 26%. The percentage of cows suffered from reproductive organs abnormalities that became pregnant after treated with Heatsynch was 60%, while none cows become pregnant without treatment. The average interval from calving to pregnancy in Heatsynch group was 512 days, and in control negative cows, none become pregnant up to 557 days after calving. It can be concluded that the incidence of abnormalities of reproductive organs in dairy cattle was still high. The Heatsynch method can improve the abnormalities of the reproductive organs in the dairy cows and improve reproductive efficiency by increase the pregnancy rate and shortening calving interval.

Keywords
Abnormalities of reproductive organs, dairy cows, heatsynch, pregnancy rate

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/N9veFpWZrRcL


The Quality of Sexed Sperm Separated Using Bovine Serum Albumin Column and Extended Using Tris Aminomethane at different temperatures
Glorinda Ella- Teken1, Muhammad Yusuf1*, Syahruddin Said2, Abd. Latief Toleng1

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Yusuf

Institutions
1) Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
2) Research Center for Biotechnology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences. Jl. Raya Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong, Bogor 16911, West Java, Indonesia

Abstract
Sexing sperms is one of the reproductive technologies that is considered as a promising alternative in the effort of reproductive efficiency to produce offspring according to the desired sex. The method for maintaining and extending the perms can be done by using bovine serum albumin (BSA) column with Tris Buffer at room temperature and waterbath without damaging the quality of the sperms. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of BSA - Tris Buffer extender on the quality of sexed sperms after thawing at 27°C and 37°C. The study was divided into two treatments; P1 was Tris extender in the temperature of 27°C and P2 was Tris extender in the temperature of 37°C with 6 replications. Those treatments were compared using a Paired Sample test (T-Test). The parameters observed in the present study were motility, viability, abnormalities, and plasma membrane integrity. The results showed that motility, viability, abnormalities, and plasma membrane integrity of the sperms X and Y at 27°C and 37°C after sexing did not differed significantly (P>0.05). Likewise, after equilibration, the motility of sperms X at 27°C and 37°C did not differed significantly (P>0.05), however, sperm Y at 27°C and 37°C showed a significant difference (P<0,05). Viability and abnormalities of sperms X at 27°C and 37°C differed significantly (P<0,05) but sperms Y at 27°C and 37°C did not show any significant differences. After thawing process, motility, viability, abnormalities and plasma membrane integrity of the sperms X and Y at 27°C and 37°C did not show any significant differences. However, it can be conluded that the quality of sexed sperms in the present study is still good because it has motility above 40% and abnormalities below 20%.

Keywords
Sexed sperms, Bovine Serum Albumin, Tris Aminomethane, and quality of the sperms

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/3vnhPkQcCAay


The Quality of Sperms Post- Immobilization at Some Parts of FH Sperm using Laser Diodes.
ATHHAR MANABI DIANSYAH, MUHAMMAD YUSUF, EKAYANTI M. KAIIN.

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Corresponding Author
Athhar Manabi Diansyah

Institutions
Universitas Hasanuddin

Abstract
The aim of this study was to find the proper method for sperms immobilization without reducing DNA integrity and damaging the shape of bovine sperms . Sperm immobilization was carried out by double shots using laser Octax MTG with wavelength of 1.48 μm and Eye Ware 3.0 software. A total of 20 sperms were shoot at 4 points, which was the tail end, the mid-tail, the neck and the head of the sperms. The shooting of 1.48 μm laser had the highest effect on immobility reaching 100% on the head and the DNA integrity of the sperms reached up to 90%, the shape of sperms were remained normal (100%) and did not showing significant effect. The results of this study indicated that (1) the laser diode with a wavelength of 1.48 μm at the mid-tail section of the sperm was most effective for sperm immobilization; (2) the use of laser diodes with a wavelength of 1.48 μm can be used to immobilize the sperms before intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The diode laser shooting with a wavelength of 1.48 μm at the tail was the most effective in immobilizing the sperms with an immobility of 95.00% ± 5.98 and DNA integrity of 85.00% ± 11.65.

Keywords
Immobilization, sperm, laser diode, ICSI, Bovine.

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/LJkUKYmTRHV8


The quality of Sumba Ongole sperms after sexing using bovine serum albumin column in Bracket Oliphant extender at different temperatures
Fadillah Ahmad Agasi1, Muhammad Yusuf1*, Syahruddin Said2, Abd. Latief Toleng1

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Yusuf

Institutions
1) Laboratory of Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
2) Research Center for Biotechnology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences. Jl. Raya Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong, Bogor 16911, West Java, Indonesia

Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of using Bracket Oliphant medium (BO) extender at different temperatures on motility, viability, abnormalities and plasma membrane integrity of sexed sperms using fresh semen of Sumba Ongole (SO). Sexing sperms was carried out using a BO extender in the BSA column. The parameters observed in this study were motility, viability, abnormalities and plasma membrane integrity and were compared using the Paired-Sample t-Test with two treatments and six replications. P1 was BO extender with a temperature of 27oC and P2 was BO extender with a temperature of 37oC. The results of this study showed that there were no significant different (P>0.05) between the two treatments of the sperms X for motility (65.8%, 53.3% and 41.3% vs. 66.3%, 55.0% and 43.3%), viability (65.9%, 68.0% and 67.0% vs. 67.7%, 61.9% and 69.6%) and plasma membrane integrity (70.1% and 59.8% vs. 64.9% and 64.2%) after sexing, equilibration and thawing, but differed significantly (P<0.05) in abnormalities after sexing (15.5%, 15.6% and 16.2% vs. 15.5%, 17.3% and 19.5%). Likewise, the motility (66.7%, 55.8% and 42.1% vs. 65.8%, 55.0% and 42.1%), viability (68.8%, 59.0% and 64.5% vs. 67.4%, 59.4% and 71.7%), abnormalities (13.6%, 19.4% and 16.6% vs. 18.9%, 18.6% and 17.2%) and plasma membrane integrity (68.1% and 57.5% vs. 62.8% and 62.8%) of sperms Y at P1 and P2 did not differed significantly (P>0.05). The difference in the value of abnormalities after sexing is still within the limits of abnormalities of the sperms. It can be concluded that the use of the BO extender method can be used at a temperature of 27oC and at 37oC in the process of sexing sperms.

Keywords
Sperm, sexing, bracket oliphant, Sumba Ongole, Motility, Viability

Topic
Animal reproduction

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/hGBpg3z7R4PM


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