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Abstract Topic: Animal waste and environmental technology

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Analysis of C-Organic and Total Phospor (P2O5) Contents of Soil Around Egg-Laying Chicken Farm
Alima Bachtiar Abdullahi1*), Ahmad Ramadhan Siregar2), Wempie Pakiding3), Mahyuddin4)

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Corresponding Author
Alima Bachtiar Abdullahi

Institutions
1) Doctoral Candidate in Agricultural Sciences, Postgraduate School of Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
* alimababdullahi[at]pasca.unhas.ac.id
2),3) Faculty of Animal Husbandry of Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
4) Faculty of Agriculture of Hasanuddin University, Indonesia

Abstract
Sustainable animal husbandry development should be environmentally friendly, meaning it doesn-t cause pollution and degradation of environmental quality, i.e. technically efficient, economically fit for use, socially acceptable and ecologically still ensuring the balance of other ecosystems. One of the resources which should be noted is the soil condition around farm which is suspected to have degraded quality due pollutions caused by farming activities. Based on that, environmental test was performed by analyzing the C-Organic and Total Phosphor (P2O5) contents of soil around egg-laying chicken farm. The present study was aimed to (1) know the C-Organic and P2O5 contents of soil around egg-laying chicken farm; (2) compare the C-Organic and P2O5 contents of soil around egg-laying chicken farm with the set assessment criteria for soil chemical properties (C-Organic and P2O5) for farmland. The present study was performed on October-December 2018, soil samples were obtained from locations around egg-laying chicken farms in Sidenreng Rappang Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The method used in testing the C-Organic and P2O5 contents of soil was spectrophotometric method. The working procedure in the present study: (1) testing the C-Organic and P2O5 contents of soil in the location and around egg-laying chicken farm; (2) comparing the C-Organic and P2O5 contents of soil from the research result with the set assessment criteria of soil chemical properties (C-Organic and P2O5) for farmland. The research result showed that the average C-Organic content of soil around egg-laying chicken farm was 0.699 % and the average P2O5 content of soil around egg-laying chicken farm was 159.2 mg/100gr. Based on the results, it-s concluded that the content of C-Organic soil around egg-laying chicken farm is very low because < 1.0 % but P2O5 Very high because because > 60 mg/100gr.

Keywords
C-Organic; P2O5; soil; egg-laying chicken farm

Topic
Animal waste and environmental technology

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/xkYqeCdJAwRK


Ecology and Adaptation of legumes crops: A review
Abdel Rahman M. Al-Tawaha1*, Abdelrazzaq Al-Tawaha2, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin3, David McNeil4, Yahia A. Othman5, Ibrahim M. AlRawashdeh1, Amanullah6, Imran6, Ali M. Qaisi7,. Nusrat Jahan8, Mohd Abas Shah9, Shah Khalid6, Rokayya Sami10, Abdur Rauf11, Devarajan Thangadurai12, Jeyabalan Sangeetha 13, Shah Fahad14, Refat A. Youssef15, Wafa-a A. Al-Taisan16, Duraid K. A. Al-Taey17.

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Corresponding Author
Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin

Institutions
1 Department of Biological Sciences, Al Hussein Bin Talal University, P.O. Box 20, Ma-an, Jordan
e-mail: abdel-al-tawaha[at]ahu.edu.jo
2 Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor.Malaysia
3Department of Socio-economic of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
4 University of Tasmania LPO, Sandy Bay, Tasmania, 7005, Australia.
5 Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
6 Agronomy Departments, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan
7 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
8 Department of Botany, Faculty of Life Sciences Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, UP, India
9 ICAR-Central Potato Research Station, Jalandhar, Punjab-144 003, India
10 Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Taif University, Taif, Al-huwayah, 888, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
11 Departments of Chemistry, University of Swabi, Anbar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
12 Departments of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003, Karnataka, INDIA
13 Departments of Environmental Science, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, 671316, Kerala, India
14 Departments of Agriculture, University of Swabi, Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
15 Soils and Water Use Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
16 Department of Biology, College of Science, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam Saudi Arabia
17 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University, Babylon Province, Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract
In this review, we discuss the relationship between environmental crop management and adaptation to warming climates of legume plants and plant breeding, for drought tolerance. The benefits connected to the impact of the expansion of appropriate legumes-based agriculture for arid zones are analyzed. We need to two aims to develop programs of breeding and management guided to drought tolerance. The first one is enhancing productivity. The second one is to improve the drought tolerance by mechanisms of water conservation.

Keywords
Ecology, legumes crops

Topic
Animal waste and environmental technology

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/FKBL3kUhMbE2


Effectiveness of Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria in partial hydrolysis of goat bones in producing gelatin
Hasma1, Effendi Abustam2, Ratmawati Malaka2, Muhammad Irfan said2, Nahariah2, Amran Laga3

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Corresponding Author
Hasma Hasma

Institutions
Hasanuddin University

Abstract
Effectiveness of Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria in partial hydrolysis of goat bones in producing gelatin Hasma1, Effendi Abustam2, Ratmawati Malaka2, Muhammad Irfan said2, Nahariah2, Amran Laga3 1 Postgraduate Program in Agricultural Sciences, Hasanuddin University 2 Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University 3 Department of Food Science and Technology Faculty of Agricultural Science, Hasanuddin University Email: hasma_abbas@pasca.unhas.ac.id Abstract. Gelatin is obtained from several stages, at the initial stage it is done immersion using an acid solution in the hope that the goats bones can be partially hydrolyzed, the bone connective tissue becomes loose so that the gelatin can be easily extracted. Partial hodrolisa in goat bones using chemical acids has been widely done but using biological acids with the utilization of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) Lactobacillus plantarum is still very rarely done. To be able to produce lactic acid as a curing material in bone, bacteria need to grow well in the medium. The material used is L. plantarum 1UHCC, Ettawah Peranakan male goat bone obtained from the same farm. This study is preliminary information to determine the ability to grow L. plantarum bacteria in goat bones with indicators of lactic acid levels, pH, total bacteria, and total protein, which are formed with different immersion times. This study uses a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) pattern of 3x3 with a treatment time of fermentation 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. Each treatment was repeated 3 times and analyzed statistically using ANOVA and continued with the DUNCAN test. The results showed that there was a very significant effect (P <0.01) between the fermentation time of 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours with lactic acid, pH, total bacteria, dissolved protein. Lactic acid at 24 hour fermentation time 0.954 ± 0.001% decreased at 48 hours 0.821 ± 0.092% then showed an increase at 72 hours 0.942 ± 0.002%. The 24-hour pH value 5,413 ± 0.015 then increased at 48 hours 6,600 ± 0.044; and decreased at 72 hours 6,303 ± 0.266. Total bacterial values showed an increase in fermentation time of 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours respectively 8,248 ± 0.196 log10CFU / mL; 9,475 ± 0,274 log10CFU / mL; 9666 ± 0.236log10CFU / mL. The value of dissolved protein showed an increase of 31,170 ± 0.120 mg / mL; 31,183 ± 0.101 mg / mL; 32,707 ± 0.115mg / mL. 72 hours fermentation time showed better quality of partial hydrolysis in goat bones Efektivitas bakteri Lactobacillus plantarum dalam hisrolisa parsial tulang kambing dalam menghasilkan gelatin Hasma1, Effendi Abustam2,Ratmawati Malaka2, Muhammad Irfan said2, Nahariah2, Amran Laga3 1Postgraduate Program in Agricultural Sciences, Hasanuddin University 2 Departemen of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University 3 Departemen of Food Science and Technology Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University

Keywords
Lactobacillus plantarum, goat bones, gelatin

Topic
Animal waste and environmental technology

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/4ZMUbEmgyjfx


Greenhouse Gas Emission (GHG) From Ruminant On 2016 At Central Sulawesi Province
Fery Fahrudin Munier, Wardi and Mohammad Takdir

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Corresponding Author
Wardi Wardi

Institutions
Assesment Institute for Agriculture Tehnology of Central Sulawesi
Jl. Poros –Kulawi Km 23 Sigi Districts, Palu, Sulawesi Tengah

Abstract
Ruminant is the one of sectors livestock that contribute to increase global warming originates manure and animal eructation. Ruminant sector accounted for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ammonia that caused the acid rain. The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of livestock sector for greenhouse gas emission (GHG) on 2016 at Central Sulawesi. The research was used ALU Tool software to calculate the emission of GHG. Data source were from livestock population and emission factors (EF) of CH4 and N2O of any livestocks. The results showed that Central Sulawesi Provincecontribute to 574.020 (Gg CO2e) emission a year from ruminant. Big Rumintant or Beef cattle is the main contributor on GHG emission in form of enteric fermentation CH4 453.550 (Gg CO2e), as much as 76.42%. Small rumintant is the production of N2O from goats as much as 106.021 (Gg CO2e) or equivalent to 17.12 %

Keywords
ALU Tool, dinitrogen oxide (N2O) Emission, Greenhouse Gas, Methane (CH4)

Topic
Animal waste and environmental technology

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/wWcX6mPqjhZ8


Isolation and Characterization Collagen of Local Goat Bone by Pepsin Enzyme Hydrolysis
Rifqi1, Jamhari1 and Yuny Erwanto1,2, *

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Corresponding Author
Yuny Erwanto

Institutions
1Department of Animal Products Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281
2Institute for Halal Industry & System, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281

Abstract
Goat bone is one of by-product which has not commonly used in Indonesia. Collagen is one of proteins which contained a bone which characterizing its uniq function. The purpose of experiment was to isolate and characterize collagen from local goat bone with pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in various concentration. The experiment consisted of bone preparation, Isolating by leaching method, and the hydrolysis of collagen bone using pepsin enzyme in various concentration (0.1; 0.3; 0.5; and 1%). Variables observed were Collagen Yield, soluble protein, pH, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, thermal stability using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and molecular weight using Sodium Dodesil Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The result showed that soluble protein concentration of collagen solution were 0.203±0.013; 0.244±0.045; 0.295±0.065; and 0.257±0.066 mg/ml. The result of yield calculation was 7.12; 7.54; 13.3; and 8.81 %. The FTIR spectra showed that all of the sample has not changed into gelatin. The thermal stability in f DSC analysis showed that the collagen start to gelation at 56.72 to 57.40 oC and Tmax for each sample were 128.20; 189.32; 131.35; 124.43 oC. In conclusion, collagen could be isolated from goat bone using enzymatic treatment and showed the fine properties as well as collagen from skin.

Keywords
Local Goat bone, Enzymatic hydrolysis, Isolation, Collagen, Characterization.

Topic
Animal waste and environmental technology

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/DPbh4JaCzUgr


Livestock Waste and Its Role in the Composting Process: A Review
Muhammad Irfan Said

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Irfan Said

Institutions
Head of Laboratory of Animal Waste Processing and By Product Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University
Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10 Makassar 90245
Corresponding author: irfanunhas[at]gmail.com; irfan.said[at]unhas.ac.id

Abstract
Livestock waste, especially manure, is one source of pollution that needs attention. Increasing the number of the livestock industry will encourage increased livestock waste. An increase in livestock population will be directly proportional to waste production. Various efforts have been made to reduce the production of such waste. Along with technological advances, efforts to reduce livestock waste have been carried out such as biogas production, compost processing and bioenergy production. In Indonesia, composting is a simple technology that has developed. The use of a mixture of animal manure with materials from agricultural waste has been widely developed. The combination of these two ingredients will produce a better quality compost product. The application of microorganisms as decomposers has been widely developed in the process of composting livestock waste. Structurally, decomposers will increase and accelerate the process of degradation of compost raw material components. The effectiveness of microorganisms is influenced by the environment. The description in this paper aims to evaluate the role of waste from animal manure as a raw material in the composting process.

Keywords
Waste, Livestock manure, Compost, Microorganism, Fermentation

Topic
Animal waste and environmental technology

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/AYntTE6Uhxkr


Population Dynamic of Red Snapper (Lutjanus gibbus) at Alor Waters East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia
Amap Pakro1, Achmar Mallawa2, Sudirman2, Faisal Amir2

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Irfan1 Said

Institutions
1 Student of Doctoral Program of Fisheries Science Study Program Faculty of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, Hasanuddin University
2 Department of Fishery,Faculty of Marine Science and Fishery, Hasanuddin University
Corresponding letter: achmar_mallawa[at]yahoo.co.id

Abstract
Abstract. This study aims to analyze the population dynamics of red snapper in Alor waters, conducted from March 2018 to March 2019. Fish total length data is collected from fishermen twice a week using a stratified random method. Size structure, cohort numbers and average length of fish per cohort using Bhattacharya method, asymptotic length and growth rate using Ford and Walford methods, total mortality, capture and natural using linearized length converted catch curve using Pauly methods, exploitation rate and Y/R by Beverton and Holt methods. The results show that red snapper measuring 180-555 mm, male 220 - 555 mm, females 180 - 330 mm, consisting of four cohort, L∞ 594.25 mm, K 0.69 per year, F, M, and E are 0.84, 0.63 and 0.56 per year respectively, the actual Y/R and Y/R are optimal at 0.0773 and 0.0989 grams per recruitment. The conclusion that catches are dominated by young and pre-adult fish, population consists of four cohort, fish in the population quickly reach L∞, the ratio of F and M rates are greater than one (F / M> 1), high F rates cause high rate of E and impact on the process of recruitment that is not optimal.

Keywords
Lutjanus gibbus, Population, Dynamic, Alor Sea

Topic
Animal waste and environmental technology

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/QKUzwpjnVYy9


Population dynamics of the white spotted rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus Park, 1797) in Makassar Strait and Gulf of Bone, Indonesia
Suwarni, Joeharnani Tresnati, Sharifuddin Bin Andy Omar, Ambo Tuwo

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Irfan2 Said

Institutions
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Hasanuddin

Abstract
Abstract.The white spotted rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus Park, 1797) is a locally important foodfish across much of Indonesia. This study aimed to support population dynamics-based fisheries management of white spotted rabbitfish stocks in the Makassar Strait and Gulf of Bone through providing data on age classes (cohorts), growth, mortality, and exploitation rate. Field data were collected over the year from February 2017 to January 2018. A total of 2248 white spotted rabbitfish (1810 males and 438 females) were collected from the Makassar Strait and 1686 (1277 males and 409 females) from the Gulf of Bone. The fish were measured (L = total length in mm), and all analyses were implemented in FISAT II. Cohorts were determined by sex based on monthly length-frequency data using the Bhattacharya method. The growth factor K and asymptotic length L∞ of white spotted rabbitfish in the Makassar Strait were K = 0.42/yr and L∞ = 211.98 mm with t0 = -0.250 yr for males and K = 0.43/yr, L∞ = 215.00 mm and t0 = -0.386 yr for females. In the Gulf of Bone the values were K = 0.42/yr, L∞ = 211.98 cm and t0 = -0.250 yr for males and K = 0.43 /yr, L∞ = 215.00 mm and t0 = -0.386 yr for females. Mortality parameters of white spotted rabbitfish in the Makassar Strait were total mortality Z = 1.70/yr, natural mortality M = 0.76/yr, F = 0.94/yr giving an exploitation rate of E = 0.55 for males, while for females Z = 1.77/yr, M = 0.84/yr, F = 0.93/yr and E = 0.53. In the Gulf of Bone, for male white spotted rabbitfish Z = 1.78/yr, M = 0.60/yr, F = 1.18 /yr and E = 0.67, while for females Z = 2.42/yr, M = 0.60/yr, F = 1.82/yr and E = 0.75/yr. These data indicate heavy fishing of both stocks, most likely at unsustainable levels.

Keywords
Siganidae, cohorts, growth parameters, mortality, exploitation rate

Topic
Animal waste and environmental technology

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/yVRdJuAqYHWe


Potential Development of Poultry Feather Waste Resources as Raw Material in Industry: A Review
Muhammad Irfan Said

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Irfan Said

Institutions
Laboratory of Animal By-products Processing Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10 Makassar 90245

Abstract
Abstract. Feather waste is a type of livestock by-product which is quite abundant. Feather waste production is influenced by the amount of poultry slaughter. In Indonesia, the poultry population occupies the highest number compared to other livestock populations. The large amount of feather waste production will also trigger livestock waste production. Various attempts have been made by researchers and industry to process and utilize this waste. Increasing the added value of feather waste is expected to be able to contribute in reducing the rate of waste production. Feather waste has been widely used in the poultry industry as animal feed ingredients. In addition, Feather waste has also been used as a medium in sports activities and furniture raw materials through the production of home industries. Currently, the development of research by scientists related to alternatives to the use of feather waste has been growing rapidly. Various challenges to reduce the production of feather waste have been carried out to create environmentally friendly products. The purpose of this review was aims to evaluate the development of the latest research technology related to the potential and use of poultry feather waste as raw material in the industrial field.

Keywords
Waste, Poultry, Feathers, Raw materials, Industry

Topic
Animal waste and environmental technology

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/gZG9KvUftqQ6


Quality of Compost Produced from Different Types of Decomposer Substrate and Composition of Straw
M I Said1, Hastang2, and V N Isra3

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Irfan Said

Institutions
1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin
University, Indonesia 90245
2Department of Socio-economics, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University,
Indonesia 90245
3Alumni of Animal Products and Technology Study Program, Faculty of Animal
Science, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia 90245

Abstract
Compost is one of the processes of decomposing organic materials that involves the activity of microorganisms partially. The use of decomposers is very important to accelerate the rate of compost fermentation. The study was aims to evaluate the quality of compost produced from different types of decomposer substrates and straw compositions. This study uses feces from Bali cattle as main material which are maintained in a semi-intensive manner. Two types of decomposer substrate were used, namely (1) animal substrate and (2) vegetable substrate. The level of straw applied were (1) 0%, (2) 5% and (3) 10% (from the total of compost). The study was conducted based on a completely randomized design (CRD) factorial pattern. The data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results showed that differences in the type of decomposer substrate and straw composition had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the pH value, levels of C-organic, N-organic and C/N ratio of compost. The pH value is in the range of 7.4-7.69. The value of C-organic content varies with a range of values 15.29-18.52%. N-organic content is in the range of 0.72 to 0.97% and C / N ratio of 19.00-25.66. The final results of the study showed that the use of animal substrate decomposer and using 10% straw from the from the total of compost showed better compost quality compared to other treatments.

Keywords
Compost, Decomposer, Fermentation, Straw, Feces

Topic
Animal waste and environmental technology

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/M6NeuPUfaAYF


Role and Function of Gelatin in the Development of the Food and Non-Food Industry: A Review
Muhammad Irfan Said

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Corresponding Author
Muhammad Irfan Said

Institutions
Laboratory of Animal Waste Processing and By Product Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10 Makassar 90245
Corresponding author: irfanunhas[at]gmail.com; irfan.said[at]unhas.ac.id

Abstract
Gelatin is a product of the partial hydrolysis of collagen in livestock. Gelatin has been used extensively in the food and non-food industries. Gelatin has a hydrocolloid form and plays an important role in influencing the properties of industrial products. Global gelatin demands is increasing every year along with the increasing human need for food and non-food industrial products. The properties of gelatin are influenced by the properties of collagen. Collagen is a derivative of fibrous protein which has an enormous role and benefit in forming gelatin molecules. Collagen is a long polypeptide chain that makes up about 50 to 1000 amino acid chains. The amino acid chain is dominated by the amino acids glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. Various studies related to the properties of gelatin produced from livestock and fish tissues have developed rapidly. Currently researchers have developed livestock and fish waste as an alternative source of gelatin. Alternative sources of gelatin have been widely published as an effort to find halal and hygienic sources of gelatin.

Keywords
Animal, Gelatin, Food, Industry, Collagen

Topic
Animal waste and environmental technology

Link: https://ifory.id/abstract/gqMba2CxtFwB


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